Indian Act Chiefs and Idle No More: Snakes in the Grassroots?

From Warrior Publications - by Zig Zag, Warrior Publications

If anarchists are going to think about solidarity with the #idlenomore phenomenon, it can be helpful to have a bit more context!

http://warriorpublications.wordpress.com/2012/12/14/indian-act-chiefs-an...

According to the accounts of Idle No More (INM) organizers, the mobilization began in Saskatchewan when four women met and decided to organize workshops outlining what Bill C-45 was, and the threats it presented to Indigenous peoples and lands. From this humble beginning, it transformed into a national day of action, almost entirely through social media. Or so goes the dominant narrative.

But is this movement really grassroots?
Snakes in the Grassroots

There has been substantial support, promotion and participation by Indian Act chiefs & councilors in the INM campaign. In fact, although INM originated in Saskatchewan in mid-November, and had expanded into Alberta with a Dec. 2 forum, it did not gain traction until the AFN’s Special Chief’s Assembly in Gatineau, Quebec, held from Dec. 4-6, 2012. An Idle No More press release of Dec. 10 confirms this chronology, including the role of the AFN assembly, during which the chiefs made a symbolic gesture of trying to enter the House of Commons:

“Opposition by First Nations to Bill C-45 garnered national attention last week during when 300 First Nations Chiefs marched on Parliament hill, and several Chiefs, led by Chief Fox, went inside Parliament to deliver a message to the government. This refusal to allow First Nations leadership to respectfully enter the House of Commons triggered an even greater mobilization of First Nation people across the country.”

(“First Nations to hold nationwide rallies Monday,” Dec. 10, 2012 Idle No More press release)

From this statement we can dispense with any claims that INM was completely the result of social media, or grassroots organizing, or as Edmonton INM organizer Tanya Kappo stated, “magic.”

When the chiefs attempted to enter the House of Commons in Ottawa on Dec. 4 and engaged in a purely symbolic effort to “force” their way in, they could not have been ignorant as to the extent of media coverage such an action would garner. In fact, they probably prayed that it would be so, and that it would galvanize the incipient INM mobilization.
"Grand Chief" Shawn Atleo of the AFN with PM Harper during Crown-First Nations Summit, Jan. 2012.

“Grand Chief” Shawn Atleo of the AFN with PM Harper during Crown-First Nations Summit, Jan. 2012.

The intentions of the AFN were made clear that same day, during the opening remarks from AFN “grand chief” Shawn Atleo:

“What we as an Executive agree and propose is the necessity to engage our peoples – recognizing the interconnectedness of our struggle, to transform what others may view as scattered protests easily dismissed, to supporting our citizens to stand together in unity and strength…

“This work, that our Executive is prepared to coordinate, is not rallies of a few but a movement of our peoples and nations…

“A movement that recalls the most poignant moments of social change like the civil rights era and the million man marches. This is our time to act.”

(AFN Special Chiefs Assembly – National Chief Shawn A-in-chut Atleo Speaking Points, Dec. 4, 2012)

Clearly, Atleo is asserting that, through the AFN and band councils, what were previously “scattered protests easily dismissed” would now be coordinated and comprise a new movement. And that movement is Idle No More, whether this was the intention of the original organizers or not.

Perhaps out of inexperience, or ignorance, or perhaps out of a conscious understanding as to the role the AFN and band councils would play, virtually every INM rally served as a platform for the Indian Act Indians to vent their grievances against the Harper regime. While generations of grassroots people have had to contend with opposition and even oppression from band councils, these same band councils are now heralded as genuine leaders of Indigenous people, courageously taking a stand against the oppressive government.
Chiefs on Warpath… for money & power

To be sure, the AFN chiefs are not simply going through the motions. They are indeed engaged in a bitter struggle with the federal government. The proposed legislative changes contained in Bills C-38 and C-45 serve to undermine the chief’s political legitimacy and authority. They are being imposed rather than arising from genuine consultation, or collaboration (if you prefer).

Yet, there is another contributing factor that has galvanized the chiefs onto the warpath, one that is overshadowed by the alarmist calls of “termination” and the potential selling off of Native reserve lands, concerns which have been central to the INM rallies. And that is the announcement, on Sept. 4, 2012, of massive funding cuts to Aboriginal political organizations, tribal councils, and service agencies.

While the national AFN saw only a $500,000 cut from its core funding of $5 million, regional political organizations & tribal councils took the hardest hits. One APTN reporter described them as “devastating” and “crippling.” The Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs, a provincial arm of the AFN, saw its core funding cut from $2.6 million down to $500,000, a cap placed on all regional organizations.
Dec. 4, 2012, AFN chiefs make a symbolic effort to enter House of Commons in Ottawa; chief Nepinak can be seen second from front.

Dec. 4, 2012, AFN chiefs symbolic effort to enter House of Commons; chief Nepinak can be seen on right.

Derek Nepinak, “grand chief” of the AMC, expressed his anger at the announced cuts on Sept. 12, 2012, noting that the national AFN, due to its collaborative role in working with the Harper government, suffered far less:

“At no time in the history of the AMC has there ever been such a threat to the viability of the organization. Massive cutbacks are not only happening to the AMC, our partner organizations of the Manitoba Keewatinowi Okimakanak (MKO), as well as the Southern Chiefs Organization (SCO), are also facing considerable cuts. In addition, all political organizations across the country, as well as tribal councils will also be cut significantly. Interestingly however, the Assembly of First Nations, as party to the Harper government’s joint action plan on First Nations people will only receive minimal funding cuts. In addition, project funding will flow to the AFN based on its key joint priorities under the joint action plan, making the AFN the big winner in all the losses to regional political efforts.”

(“Federal funding cuts threaten the viability of the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs,” by Derek Nepinak, Sept. 12. 2012)

Anishinabek Nation Grand Chief Patrick Madahbee called the cuts “a political attack” and a “divide and conquer strategy,” while Nepinak further stated they were “a direct attack on the political voice of First Nations communities across the country” (“Tribal council funding cuts leave leaders fuming,” by Shawn Bell, Wawatay News, Thursday September 13, 2012).

A month prior to this, however, one corporate media report crowed about the cozy relationship between the AFN and the federal government, as if affirming Nepinak’s interpretation of the manner in which funding cuts were carried out, stating:

“The Conservative government and first nation leaders, in a historic shift from confrontation to co-operation, have agreed to launch a joint effort to transform the schools, economies and quality of life on reserves across Canada.

“If the new Canada First Nation Joint Action Plan between the Canadian government and the Assembly of First Nations succeeds, “our people will be able to feel, taste, and experience the change in a significant manner more quickly than we’ve experienced in the past,” AFN National Chief Shawn Atleo said.”

(“Ottawa, native leaders commit to sweeping overhaul of reserve life,” by John Ibbitson, The Globe and Mail, Aug. 24 2012)

Four months before this, the essence of the proposed changes contained in Bills C-38 (the first part of the omnibus budget bill) and C-45 (the second part) were already known.
Long before Bill C-45, the tar sands in north Alberta was killing Natives and the land.

Long before Bill C-45, the tar sands in north Alberta was killing Natives and the land.

On March 29, 2012, the Economic Action Plan 2012 was introduced by Finance Minister Jim Flaherty. It is from this plan that both bills are derived. Bill C-38 was itself introduced on April 29, 2012. In June, the AFN released a review of Bill C-38, focusing primarily on changes to the Fisheries Act and environmental review process. There is no sense of urgency or imminent danger mentioned anywhere in this, or subsequent reports or submissions regarding Bill C-38, which passed in late June. On the other hand, environmentalists were vigorously condemning the bill as the “Environmental Destruction Act” for the manner in which it would expedite major industrial projects (another main concern of INM rallies).

Today we are told that there is an imminent danger threatening Native peoples and lands, one that we must unite and fight against: Bill C-45, introduced on Oct. 18, 2012. Clearly this bill, and the overall assimilation strategy of Canada, presents threats to Indigenous peoples and lands. The chiefs, however, knew about the proposed changes as early as March, 2012, when the Economic Action Plan was introduced. But instead of sounding the alarm and calling all hands to deck, the Indian Act chiefs continued working with the government on implementing the very policies we are now told are an imminent threat to our existence as Indigenous peoples.

It was only after the Sept. 4 funding cuts that the chiefs, primarily from Aboriginal provincial organizations, began any talk about “attacks” on Indigenous peoples. As late as November 27, when the AFN made a formal submission to a senate committee in regards to Bill C-45, it focused only on proposed changes to the Fisheries Act and Navigable Waters Protection Act.New Chief raw

It has always been the long term goal of Canada to assimilate Indigenous peoples, and the Indian Act was always intended as a temporary means to this end. Atleo and the AFN, in fact, have been calling for abolishing the Indian Act for several years now. Some of the most assimilated chiefs are promoting the conversion of reserve lands to private property under the pretext of creating economic self-sufficiency. Many band and tribal councils have already signed “self-government” agreements that remove them from the Indian Act and change their reserve lands to private property, including those who implement the BC treaty process agreements. But now we’re told it’s a policy of “termination” that must be resisted.

Since the Dec. 10 rallies, other actions have occurred, virtually all conducted by Indian Act band councils and chiefs (although some well-intentioned grassroots people are being swept up in all the hype). On Dec. 11, Attawapiskat Chief Theresa Spence began a hunger strike “to the death,” demanding a meeting between Harper, AFN, and the Queen of England. Then on Dec. 12, the Samson Cree Nation near Edmonton, Alberta, partially blockaded a section of highway in support of INM and Spence’s hunger strike. On Dec. 13, Ontario chief of the Assembly of First Nations Stan Beardy announced that there would be more rallies, while the Sandy Bay First Nation in Manitoba announced they would be blockading the Trans-Canada Highway on Saturday, Dec. 15.
Samson Cree Nation band council blockades highway near Edmonton, AB.

Samson Cree Nation band council blockades highway near Edmonton, AB.

Ultimately, we are engaged in a struggle against the state and corporations for the very survival of indigenous peoples, lands, and ways of life. While mobilizations may be necessary at times against specific legislation, as occurred in the Quebec student strike (which succeeded because it employed a diversity of tactics and caused considerable economic disruption to the Quebec economy), that which is currently being waged against Bill C-45 reeks of hypocrisy, opportunism, and manipulation by the Indian Act chiefs, many of whom are fighting for the financial survival of their respective organizations.

Ideally, the Idle No More rallies will stop their collaboration with the Indian Act Indians and transform into a genuinely grassroots resistance movement. To do this, participants must first realize the parasitical role the Indian Act Indians are playing in the mobilization, and understand the historical role of the band councils as agents of colonization. And, rather than portraying this recent mobilization as “the beginning” of a revolution, learn from the rich history of Indigenous resistance over the last 30 year period, a resistance that has more often than not found itself on the other side of the barricade from the Indian Act Indians.

For additional background info, see:

How the Indian Act Made Indians Act Like Indian Act Indians

Resist the Assimilation of First Nations

Category: 

Comments

Very informative. Thanks for sharing.

Thanks for this. Read the whole thing. Well written and I learned a lot

A fine summary of concerns. I'll be watching this movement; but I'll now think twice before participating, and carefully consider the extent to which I might involve myself. With any luck, these actions will transform into a truly grass-roots expression of resistance, untamable by collaborators with the Canadian state.

"While mobilizations may be necessary at times against specific legislation, as occurred in the Quebec student strike (which succeeded because it employed a diversity of tactics and caused considerable economic disruption to the Quebec economy), that which is currently being waged against Bill C-45 reeks of hypocrisy, opportunism, and manipulation by the Indian Act chiefs, many of whom are fighting for the financial survival of their respective organizations."

Actually the same problem with the Quebec student strike. Political opportunism and manipulation led to a massive political recycling, and a massive division between the sheep and the ones willing to keep fighting.

Can Facebook bring a Revolution... or even broader enslavement?

I let you guess...

this brings to the surface very well, how spontaneous, an-archist organizing is almost always (in westernized cultures) hijacked by authoritarianism. those who inject themselves as representing a ‘collective voice’ of the people are naturally going to be ‘recognized’ by the authoritarian political system [they are recognized as ‘politicians’, and keeping the dialogue ‘political’ is what politicians want; i.e. political organizing is inherently authoritarian]. but who are the people ‘speaking to’? to the established authoritarian regime? what for? the authoritarian regime has nothing to say of importance to the people, other than, ‘i will get out of your way’. in anarcha-indigenism, the people speak to each other in the ‘circle’.

The first comment I have liked by Emile.

fine, but forgetting about ‘emile’, and moving to the ‘limitations of european language’, english has problems dealing with the ‘interdependence of things that are continually emerging within a relational medium aka ‘space’. ‘spring’ and ‘winter’ are phases of a cycle that influence all things in the common space; they are influences that can ‘contain’ but cannot themselves be ‘contained’ [as Lamarck would say].

this interdependence of things via the relational dynamics of space is physical reality. authoritarian cultures ignore this reality and develop views of the world and political programs that purport to change the world to a more desirable state in terms of ‘what things-in-themselves do’; e.g. ‘what people do’. but what people do transforms the dynamics of the relational space they share inclusion in which is what people experience.

the ‘circle’ is a means whereby real people [not people modeled with political theory] can share how “the dynamics of the inhabitants are conditioning the dynamics of the habitat [that influence the diverse experiencings of everyone in it] at the same time as the dynamics of the habitat are conditioning the dynamics of the inhabitants [in different ways, as in a relational web]”.

the notion of ‘independent behaviour’ is made nonsense by this understanding as is western ‘justice’ based on the ‘moral’ ‘goodness’ or ‘badness’ of an ‘individual’s behaviour’ [as if it jumpstarted from an ‘independent’ individual in non-relational empty space]. such a view is an oversimplified view based on treating visual appearances as 'reality', and ignoring the non-local, non-visible, non-material dynamic relations that prevail in the real physical world.

english is a language architected for commerce [it has its origins in phoenician trade and commerce] and is best suited for dealing with inventories of disconnected commodities. politics is the art of using such a language to organize the social dynamic.

Ow! You make my head hurt.

She's a native and I think she is trying to make you understand that tribalism hasn't been shelved yet by the fucking G8.

your head needn’t hurt. it’s not that difficult; i.e. using our european language we can formulate representations of the same dynamic based on ‘creation’ and ‘destruction’ as if these were each processes-in-their-own-right, which they are not, according to modern physics. that is, we can argue;

(1.) the colonizers constructed a wonderful new world in North America.

(2.) the colonizers destroyed a wonderful established world on turtle island.

the third option, which is beyond direct representation in language, is;

(3.) the world is a continually transforming relational spatial-plenum wherein ‘creation/construction’ and ‘annihilation/destruction’ are conjugate aspects of the one dynamic of ‘transformation’.

mach’s principle further informs (3.) “the dynamics of the inhabitants are conditioning the dynamics of the habitat at the same time as the dynamics of the habitat are conditioning the dynamics of the inhabitants”.

the entry of the colonizers into the common space on turtle island is like the entry of a crowd of farty types into an elevator cabin’s continuing journey. their good works were at the same time stinking the place up. ‘relational-spatial transformation’ (3.) is the physical reality and it is beyond direct linguistic representation in the habitual terms of ‘what things do’ in a positive causal sense since there is always a flip-side [conjugate aspect] to this coinage in terms of ‘what they are undoing’ in a negative causal sense.

intuitively, we understand that (3.) the transformation of the relational space we share inclusion in is the case that matches our physical experience, while (1.) positive cause and (2.) negative cause, are both idealizations arising from language based representations, which are inherently irreconcilable since ‘creation’ and ‘destruction’ do not exist as processes-in-their-own-right, except in language based formulations.

your head won’t hurt if you let your intuition come in and give up your western obsessive compulsive need to capture (3.) explicitly in language. instead of explicit capture in linguistic formulations, one has to accept zen koans and relational inference.

the following gives some additional background investigative findings into why explicit language-based arguments are idealizations that do not tie to the real physical world of our experience.

“Like Bergson, many Eastern thinkers have recognised the futility of analytical representation and the inherent inadequacies of language, and hence developed complex strategies of communication in their attempts to convey ultimate reality.”

Unspeakability

`It may be that a tradition of analysis and verbalization finds it less obvious that preconceptual and prelinguistic awareness is possible, and that a tradition of meditative silence and skepticism with regards to the adequacy of language, would find the preconceptual and prelinguistic necessary to a correct understanding of any and all discursive activities'

`Therefore, the Taoist teaches without words, transmitting through non-explanation'

This awareness of the incompetence of language and analysis in the important matters of life is deeply entrenched in the collective psyche of the East. As Nishitani Keiji, a leading contemporary Japanese philosopher puts it, there is a deep-seated `awareness of the incompetence of utterance as the mode of man's being in regard to that which should remain unspoken, and the insight that utterance and human thinking can return to and rest in its own nature only when that awareness of incompetence is truly gained, have been, I think, common tenets throughout Indian Brahaminism, Chinese Taoism and Japanese Shinto' (Nishitani, 1981). In consequence the Eastern mind has opted to privilege as more fundamental and profound that which lies beyond the ordinary grasp of language and logic and which is only approachable through a complex, spiralling form of paradoxical utterances that contain `infinitely suggestive nuances of feeling-tone' (King, in Nishitani, 1982). They merely allude to an ultimate reality beyond the realms of intellection. As the first few lines of Tao Te Ching warns us:

The Tao (Way) that can be told of is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be named is not the eternal name. The Nameless is the origin of Heaven and Earth; The Named is the mother of all things

For the Eastern mind, ultimate reality is essentially `nameless' or `unnamable'. It can only be alluded to or spoken off elliptically, paradoxically or under erasure. As Jan van Bragt, the able translator of Nishitani Keiji's Religion and Nothingness puts it nicely, there is a general Eastern antipathy to overly direct and assertive language in everyday discourse. Thus, in place of the kind of aggressive `trumpeting of opinion in terms that the listener should not be able to disregard' (van Bragt, in Nishitani, 1982: xl) and the insistence on straight-line clarity and distinctiveness in logical argumentation, the Eastern mind prefers to `circumnavigate an issue, tossing out subtle hints that permit only a careful listener to surmise where the unspoken core of the question lies' (ibid). Communication of thought is often indirect, suggestive, and symbolic rather than descriptive and precise. This cautious indirectness and circularity as well as oftentimes paradoxical nature of utterances, as a deliberate intellectual strategy of communication, is particularly exemplified in the philosophical explorations of Eastern thinkers such as Nishida Kitaro, the founding member of the Kyoto School in Japan whose work arguably represents a most thorough and systematic confrontation of the limits of Western metaphysics. It is one which Shimomura describes well:
`Like a musical theme, the basic theme is repeated and emphasized many times over, and while executing variations and performing spiral rotations, continues to ascend' (Shimomura, in Nishida: 207)

Here, the emphasis does not lie in grasping the meaning of individual distinct notes or words. Instead the relentless combinations, variations and recombinations involved in the thematic build-up, work to awaken our hitherto dormant sensitivities to the implicit master-theme that lies beyond the individual instantiations. As the eminent Buddhist monk Kao-seng Chuan puts it:

`Symbols are to express ideas. When ideas have been understood, symbols should be forgotten. Words are to interpret thoughts. When thoughts have been absorbed, words stop.. .Only those who can take the fish and forget the net are worthy to seek the truth' (Kao-seng Chuan, in Chang, 1963)

For the Eastern mind, ultimate reality is essentially `nameless' or `unnamable'. It can only be alluded to or spoken off elliptically, paradoxically or under erasure.

;)

daed

‘ultimate reality’ of eastern and aboriginal philosophy corresponds to ‘physical reality’ in modern physics. the globally dominant western mindset is confusing linguistic ‘idealizations’ based on ‘notional’ things-in-themselves’ and ‘what they do’ for ‘reality’. this is where ‘authoritarianism’ and ‘sovereigntism’ come from, from inventing absolute local ‘subjects’ and imputing the jumpstarting of ‘their’ development and ‘their’ behaviour to them, even though, in the physical world of our experience, nothing ‘jumpstarts’ from local subjects. these subjects are language-based names and definitions we impose on forms that are relational features that gather and regather within the continually transforming relational spatial plenum [as in mach’s principle]. politics is the language-based art of keep a collective in a continuing state of ‘belief’ in the local jumpstarting of power; e.g. a cell nucleus, and/or the nuclear central authority of a notional ‘sovereign state’ defined by imaginary boundary lines imposed by observers that define nothing at all in a physically real sense [only belief in linguistic political rhetoric gives ‘reality’ to these synthetic structures with their notional local jumpstarting powers. in globally dominant western mindset, meanwhile, these idealizations are the very basis of what is accepted as ‘reality’. in other words, the popular reality that dominates in the world today, is poltiical-linguistic abstraction [the basis of authoritarian/sovereigntist hierarchical structures] that is progressively subsuming and obscuring the physical reality of our real-life experience.

this is where ‘authoritarianism’ and ‘sovereigntism’ come from, from inventing absolute local ‘subjects’ and imputing the jumpstarting of ‘their’ development and ‘their’ behaviour to them, even though, in the physical world of our experience, nothing ‘jumpstarts’ from local subjects

So where did the authoritarianism of Chinese, Indian (subcontinent), and Southeast Asian (Therevada Buddhist) cultures derive from? Certainly the record for their authority structures far precedes contact with Western Europeans. Considering the parallels between Vedic religions and the neoplatonic influence on Christianity, I'm more than a little skeptical of this black/white break between the evil Western mentality and the benign "Eastern Mind."

Also, animistic societies have certainly not always lacked for authoritarianism in history (Ashanti Empire, Bantu agriculturalists, Haida Indians, various Polynesian societies etc.)

Lest that come across too much like trolling, I must say that I really find your writing quite thought provoking, and it's nice to see anarchists that actually care about having a solid philosophic grounding for what they do. You tackle a lot of the problems with language and reification in ways that make me think (which is to say by not taking the path of least resistance and rejecting hard science and the notion of an objective fundamental reality because the zeitgeist's po-mo drones have rendered it uncool).

i really appreciated this, emile.

As always, ZigZag patiently helping whitey to understand how it's not as simple as "help the indians cause they're the good guys".

Listen. I like your comment, and I'm sorry that I have to do this. I'm just playing my role.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xnaxl_IuOxQ

It's all good. I'm just making fun of the target audience here.

Money perverts direction. This problem is not merely localized in Canada. It is oil money pouring in that is creating divisions from Canada all the way to Texas. Obama approved the Southern stretch of the pipeline; it is underway. The Northern stretch is being held up, partly because of the objections of indigenous tribes. This has been carefully premeditated. The project will still come in on time. Winter construction cost too much up North and it moves slower. I think your government did this to sweat you out over the Winter. They know it'll make more "Indian Act Indians" by the time Spring rolls around; just in time to swing the pipeline construction crews North for the building season. The Chinese are waiting in the shadows to take a swipe at opening up this region if anybody domestic tries to shelve it; Americans are all about economy and getting off foriegn oil, not environment. I think this will turn out to be a blitzkrieg. This situation is going to get very dangerous.

unless of course, resistance becomes more than just complaining (which it already has up north)

Believe whatever you want, I know for certain that FN traditionalists are in tune with Creator and at this time are having their ceremonies to stop Harper. We know all about the Indian Act Indians, and they will be dealt with but not in the ways that you will understand. You have not nor will not EVER understand our respect and spiritual relationship with Mother Earth. Harper was painted with sacred paint from the Blackfoot Sacred Society (who were able to maintain their spiritual ways) and he shouldn't forget it. We welcomed foreigners with open arms, we are a peaceful nation and the reserves we were corraled into are the only places we can perform our ceremonies and get away from the Europeans. I thought Anonymous was part of the Sacred Rainbow that was predicted by our Ancestors but after reading your website I am saddened that we are still waiting for them to arrive to help save this world.

This is a comment I got for posting this article on Facebook, any response from Zig-Zag would be appreciated.

"Are you seriously asking us to proofread your papers? Let me start here: --"There has been substantial support, promotion and participation by Indian Act chiefs & councilors in the INM campaign." There is no mention of a controlling interest in the focus of the campaign, they are just insinuating that it is tainted by support. --"From this statement we can dispense with any claims that INM was completely the result of social media, or grassroots organizing" is a bullshit statement following the previous assumption. --"Long before Bill C-45, the tar sands in north Alberta was killing Natives and the land." Is an appropriation of the issue to a different one. --"It has always been the long term goal of Canada to assimilate Indigenous peoples, and the Indian Act was always intended as a temporary means to this end." This statement dismisses the obligations that were set out in the proclamation of 1763, affirmed in the BNA act, and confirmed in the Constitution Act. Anarchists often come to the conclusion that the State's dissolution is the paramount concern, and that the treaties and lawful obligations that they have made in the meantime are of a secondary and inconsequential issue. I urge you to read up on your history, and find something to post that won't be so easily rebuffed, friend."

I am in and around Indian homes. Many many houses inside are one hell of a mess. That mess is caused by the occupants and poverty! The less one has, the more they should care about what they have. The band office have the best of the best office equipment. Most if not all band workers
Have new cars. Many band members are travelling to the big cities for meetings and yet elders are ignored. There are an excess of band employees dealing with departments looking for patches of blueberry patches ("because we would have picked them and so that would be our land").
Look at the chief that isn't eating trying to force our P/M to meet her. She draw a good wage, has a band manager as a husband, drives a caddy and office staff that cost a band near 3/4 million in salaries!!
It's all crap and indians need to get it together before the rest of us Canadian decide it's enough and we taxpayers are going to take this crap one second more!!!!
Tired hearing about the poor Indian!!
It band council and chiefs creating this poverty!!!!
Had it!!!

The particular Death Adder snake may be the native of Australia’s snakes, may be the many poisonous Australian snakes. They're reasonably very little — as much as 3 legs (1m) — nonetheless their very own fangs are generally finest as compared to it's shape measurement

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