AnPrim On Fire: Human Supremacy Within Anarcho-Primitivist Narrative

  • Posted on: 22 March 2019
  • By: Ria

From Vegan Primitivist

Within anarcho-primitivism plays an ongoing dialectic pinpointing origins of the problem of civilization. Impugning only capitalism or the industrial age is seen as much too timid. From the left, radical environmental activist leader and author Derrick Jensen notably impugns the point people exceed their capacity for self-sufficiency, the dawn of cities. In Ishmael and The Story of B novelist and civilization critic Daniel Quinn renders agriculture as human’s dichotomizing choice to be Givers or Takers. Couple cities with agriculture and you’ve hit the anprim sweet spot.

Looking farther back than agriculture as the start of humans’ split with nature slashes approval. Anarcho-primitivist author and Anarchy Radio host John Zerzan’s look back to origins of art and language has appealed to some but with less enthusiasm. In his 3/13/19 radio show Zerzan reals in others’ analysis on the catalyst of controlled fire, instead positioning civilization’s origins at the point humans domesticated animals and plants. Some say looking back only ~10 millennia paints too shallow a picture, ignores all the props setting the stage for humans igniting the world with civilization.

The debate on civilization’s origins parallels the debate on what qualifies as a technology. Values connoted by technologies are biased to support the interpreter’s view on origins. For example, those who blame agriculture see the plow as an obvious tool of civilization. Those who include controlled fire in the blame see hearths uncovered in archeologic digs as technological shifts in humans’ relationship with living communities that set the stage for domestication of plants and animals. Agriculture-blaming purists deny that using fire is technology toward civilization, perhaps to justify keeping fire in their rewilding repertoire, or perhaps in an effort to ward off criticism of hunting and cooking animals. In the premise set forth here placing civilization’s origins with the beginnings of human primate’s colonizing lifeways, inventions such as mortar and pestle are not catalysts toward civilization if they are not used as colonizing instruments, but spears are catalysts toward civilization if they are used as colonizing instruments, no matter how ‘simple’ in design. Yes other species use hunting implements, but not in a way that degrades and massacres large scale living communities in a mega-regional, or even worldwide colonizing scheme as humans have.

Even today various prehistoric fire methodologies manifest, adding insight into how civilization might have transitioned in through fire use. I’ve joined Pemón people in southeast Venezuela in slash & burn jungle ‘gardening’, turning yucca into bread to trade with nearby villages. I’ve surveyed evidence of rotational camas plot burns abandoned centuries ago on a Salish island tribes once used not to inhabit but just to grow and harvest the tasty bulbs. I’ve seen Karuk burn redwoods’ underbrush clearing space for huckleberry and oak ‘gardens’, and grazing meadows for hunting deer and elk, cultivating ‘crops and livestock’ into the forest (their words) for so long that elements that made the pre-human forest robust are replaced by and made dependent on human lit fires. And I’ve heard female native docents frustrated with male docents’ focus on telling stories of hunting and war rather than how wild edibles were foraged and fire was used to extensively clear land for planting of domesticates maize, beans, squash, and melons, the less masculine staple plant foods provided by women’s labor.

Observations such as these spark wonderings on impacts of earlier humans’ fire use on habitats, and in turn on their own culture. To what extent did controlled fire lead to agriculture? Being domestication was likely not the original purpose of many inventions like fire mastery, what were the transition periods, catalysts, and factors setting the stage for civilization to erupt? How did early human actions shape early human ethos, and vice versa? How do these moves toward civilization form an overarching theory on humans’ adaptations and evolutions from their origins into H. sapiens current domesticated form?

Comparative anthropologist and anarcho-primitivist author Layla AbdelRahim’s theory is that human primates shifted away from symbiotic habitat roles as seed spreaders into a predatory mindset, lifeway and foodway. No matter the exact nature of the cause, the problem is revealed in the shift from foraging plants to hunting animals. AbdelRahim’s conception connects with other analysis on the impact of early human ‘progresses’. Back to Zerzan’s Anarchy Radio show, the following week 3/19/19 I called in with a follow up question on his ‘domestication not controlled fire made us civilized’ statement: What set the stage for domestication? His answer: division of labor and ethos of control. Despite how long ago humans’ first sparked flame then how long it took to integrated it into routine use on a widespread basis, it is more than conceivable that fire mastery was a crucial step toward not only dividing labor but controlling, preying upon and colonizing bioregions. One could argue that other animals have domesticated other life, or have divisions of labor, or shaped entire ecosystems with control over elements like water; but no other has gained perhaps the supreme control, control over fire. Changes in ethos and world impact were certainly monumental.

In primatologist and biological anthropologist Richard Wrangham’s book Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human, cooking allowed for increased calories to shift from the gut to the brain for inventive thinking that gave humans a new advantage, a power over other species. Human relations not only changed with other species, but within our own. For example, men shifted their focus from foraging to hunting, providing periodic meat, while women continued foraging and gathering to cook vegetation and occasionally meat. While men went out on risky hunting quests, women were tasked to provide steady sustenance, staying closer to the hearth. Cooking was susceptible to pilfering, so a ‘primitive protection racket’ formed pairing cooking women with stronger male counterparts to control food distribution. Hence cooking instigated the cultural practice of food as property and men’s subjugation of women through pair bonding, an ownership-of-women patriarchy continuing to this day. And yes, some women have hunted; imitating and adopting the way of the oppressor happens. Generalities in cultural analysis tell a generalized story.

With men’s shift to hunting specialization resulting in not only predation upon other animals but domination of female mates, one might question if women’s later shift from gathering and cooking specialization to joining men in adopting agriculture might equalize the power imbalance. But agriculture further polarized the sex power imbalance. Researcher on gender and technology Deborah Spar is wrapping up her latest project with the book: The Virgin and the Plow: How Technology is Changing Who We Are, and How We Live and Love. She finds that agriculture settlement needed children to both work and to inherit accumulated property. For men to know who their children were, as their rightful laborers and heirs, they began controlling women’s fertility. Agriculture honed the notions of adored female virgins and monogamous wives. As humans domesticated themselves and others, this quest to establish paternity intensified a patriarchal hierarchy with men at the top, and women, children and other animals leveled beneath as property to exploit.

AbdelRahim’s anthropological predation theory parallels an anarcho-ecology colonization theory. Wild communities thrive through intricate interactions, responsive dynamics, cycles of life becoming death becoming life, and a constant striving toward diverse connectedness and homeostasis of primal freedom. Mutual aid is the way of the wild. Changes are met with attempts to re-stabilize the living system. Species slowly shift their ranges, reforming networks through co-adaptations. Defense mechanisms ward off more invasiveness than a community can withstand. Species die offs occur but are limited. This is generally how hominids lived with others from their first steps out of trees for millions of years, notably as more prey than predator. But as human primates invented a series of technologies giving them not just abilities to survive and thrive with and within wild habitat, but powers to expand, control and conquer their predators and all others, they adapted and evolved into a colonizing species, in time degrading all Earth’s bioregions.

When one Homo species honed the ability to control fire, changing their foodway and making their brain even more inventive, did this cascade into Homo colonizing the planet? Long before animals and plants were brought under H. sapiens total control, humans virtually wiped out all their predators, spread across Earth, and reformed continents of habitats. In their book Man the Hunted: Primates, Predaotrs, and Human Evolution anthropologists Robert Sussman and Donna Hart smash the man-the-hunter myth with evidence of early humans succumbing to predators such as cats, dogs, hyenas, snakes, crocodiles, and raptors. Progression from prey to colonizer of the planet implies myriads of inventions, catalysts and adaptations, some more impactful than others. For the foraging primate, fire mastery meant not only protection from predators, but turning predators into prey with fire-formed weapons, then cooking them to further feed their inventive brain. Fire’s warmth welcomed expansion into colder climates. Fire mastery may have been the most significant technology transfiguring a resourceful species from foraging prey living within habitat ranges to Earth’s most effective predatory colonizer.

Imagine the immense series of ‘advances’ with accompanying progress trapping repercussions, cycles of stories with the same motif differing only details. As various bands of Neanderthals mastered fire with flint (Andrew Sorensen, Emilie Claud, and Marie Soressi, Neanderthal fire-making technology inferred from microwear analysis, Scientific Reports, 8, article number 10065, 2018), it may never be revealed the extent fire altered their lifeway and environments. By analyzing DNA in plaque on Neanderthal teeth, paleomicrobiologists discovered a band seemingly with fire under a thousand miles from a band seemingly without fire. One from Spy cave in Belgium mostly ate meat like woolly rhinoceros and wild sheep. Others in El Sidrón cave in Spain were entirely vegan, no trace of meat, just mushrooms, pine nuts, tree bark, and moss. The Belgian Neanderthals hunted; the Spanish ones foraged. (Laura Weyrich, Sebastian Duchene, and Alan Cooper, Neanderthal behavior, diet, and disease inferred from ancient DNA in dental calculus, Nature 544, 357-361, 20 April 2017) Imagining the outcome of contact between fire and non-fire human bands serves as a lesson in how supremacy expands by applying a theory in Andrew Bard Schmookler’s The Parable of the Tribes: The Problem of Power in Social Evolution. Spoiler alert: Evolutionary dynamics drive power in unavoidable ways people don’t choose.

Play along: Imagine Neanderthal groups living within reach of one another. If all choose the way of life without aggressive fire use, then the entire region may live in homeostasis. But what if all but one choose mutualism within habitat, and that one uses fire for ambitious expansion and conquest? What are the possibilities for others confronted by the aggressive fire powered neighbor?

  • One group is attacked, defeated and destroyed, leaving lands seized as spoils of war.
  • Another is defeated, but not exterminated; rather, subjugated to serve the conquerors.
  • Another flees into some less livable place, ceding former habitat to the growing power-seeking fire-controlling Neanderthals.
  • Observing these events others decide to defend their autonomy. But the irony is to win, they too must become powerful. Since the aggressors honed ways to grow their power with innovations in organizing strategies using fire technology with ferocity, the defensive Neanderthals must transform into something more like their adversary.

The four possible outcomes are destruction, absorption and transformation, withdrawal, or imitation. In every possible outcome the lifeways of predation and colonization are spread. And, neither the oppressor nor the oppressed are free, but owned by the technology, the ethos. While the Neanderthal line was cut short, H. sapiens continued on with impacts well known. This parable explains for example why both civilized men and women comply with cultural norms on pair bonding and monogamy. They are fixed in perpetual compliance with cultural normatives established as far back as the geneses of agriculture and fire mastery.

Was it not humans’ shifts toward predation and colonization that changed the nature of plants and animals through preferential selection, not just in how others live in relation to the new powerful primate, but who lives and who dies? Would H. sapiens have been able to domesticate eventually the entire planet without predation, without colonization, and without the fire that sparked them?

Denial of catalysts toward agriculture such as controlled fire and hunting is denial of human supremacy through patriarchy and speciesism. This is why anprims struggle with defining human habitat ranges – they don’t want limitations experienced by wild animals as homes, they are trapped with craving a destructive sham freedom to colonize, they are accustomed to the entitlement to roam so extensively and fearlessly that they no longer sense total belonging within a bioregion’s community of life. This is why anprims laud hunting, justifying it in the wings of more recent indigenous people’s cultures and mythology of earlier humans ‘primal ventures in wild but predatory ways – they don’t want to live as foraging primates, they have been conditioned to crave the hunt of animals, unknowingly craving civilization’s catalyst. This is why anprims mock veganism, devaluing and dismissing it with invalid claims of being nothing more than leftist drivel – they don’t want to acknowledge their own innate compassion for animals suppressed by predatory indoctrination. As in the parable of the tribes’ futile ending, is it not a choice to rewild? Do attempts to rewild clash with the human as the embodiment of civilization?

Civilization is not one event in time, but a labyrinth of invasive actions that become practices and mindsets of H. sapiens’ supremacy, bewilderingly manifesting overtly in those who strive for a way pre-civ, or anti-civ, or post-civ. Painfully and tediously pulling back the veils gets one nearer to understanding humans’ wild freedom. An anti-colonizer finds the way of primal anarchy to be resisting civilization, refusing to relent, while rewilding earth toward abundant flourishing.

In today’s ruined wilds, the way of primal anarchy is de-cultivating civilization. Technologies that perpetuate civilization can be retooled to discard civilization and the ethos that led to it: predatory control and colonization. This colonizing Homo-driven sixth mass extinction event is no time to play the fabled caveman exploiting pristine remnants. The first step in rewilding is sensing Earth’s call for healing and responding to it. Sciences such as restoration ecology can be utilized until humans awaken their lifeway that innately co-tends wild co-homes. In giving back to the wild, humans return themselves to the wild, reviving the ethos of mutualism in habitat.




Good article. I can definitely see a link between the advent of fire mastery and further technology- leading as you say to differentials in power and setting the ground for a mindset of exploitation(which only grew more overt in expression over time).
Though I’m sure that the anti-vegan posturing you mentioned exists in part because of internalized narratives of hunting, the radical construction of living a life bounded as it was in the way of early humans, and to an extent as an expression of modern biases against veganism... I would say that some of the resistance must be related to the extreme difference from our current lifeway and the difficulty of returning to it. If you take the entire graduated spectrum from rampant consumer non anarchist to anarchist then from anarchist to anarcho primitivist and finally from the standard anarcho primitivist perspective to the early human vegan/opportunistic omnivore that you appear to advocate for...each step requires a massive shift, from one to the next, as regards ways of thought and daily life. As with most normies when seeing anarchist thought for the first time (or even the treatment anprims get from r/cth most of the time) the expected result is revulsion and outright rejection.
That being said - to bridge what you propose to where someone like myself stands(accepting the anprim critique, but seeing the most possible extreme way of realizing it as a return to an agrarian lifestyle using permaculture tecnics etc - a minimal primitivist praxis tbh)how would you propose we advance toward something even older. I’ve read fire cooked food contributed to the emergence of language for one thing(plant based included). And since most vegans I know rely on either industrial farmed produce or at best, locally grown stuff (which still is well outside of even the most modest indigenous forest gardening...which is further still outside of the prefire human), and we currently live bounded as we are by privatized lands - how should we proceed?
I ask this not yet vegan myself, but my wife at least is moving that direction from the experience of keeping our own livestock...for me it may be a longer road(currently focused on transitioning to being a locavore)...but I do want to find ways outside the monetary system to support my family and to do so in a way that is radically rooted and as non exploitative of the land I live on as possible.
If at any point in my long winded comment I seemed snarky or anything I apologize- I’m sleepy and had a long day - it was unintentional....I’m just curious and cursed with being long-winded.

Nice article. I think I more or less agree with you. Certainly I think that a focus on cooking/eating animals is a root-cause of oppressive/hierarchical behavior. Fire certainly played a role in that.
Overall, I tend to have mixed feelings on whether to critique indigenous lifeways that incorporate the use of fire in land "management". I'm not sure I believe that there would be purely egalitarian communities in the absence of fire. And I do think that many indigenous cultures who have utilized fire are/were so much more egalitarian than my own culture that I have to pause before I question their history.
Its a curious situation: if fire had never been harnessed, maybe we would never have seen the rise of colonizing cultures. But given the use of fire for millennia, some outcomes and cultures seemed much more desirable than others.
I also think its interesting that fire-prone ecosystems have co-evolved with anthropogenic fire over the past 10,000 or so years (since the last ice age). In terms of restoration, this presents a problem: do we restore to a condition that assumes no anthropogenic fire, or are indigenous cultures and their intentional fire-setting a characteristic mechanism of disturbance? I tend to go with the latter while quietly questioning whether we should be allowing the lofty characterization of our species as an ecological "keystone".

not everything used to be a forest. mono-cropping is more destructive to the land than pasture-raised animals. it cannot be done in as many places, and requires far more water from irrigation.

“the economic evolution of dominion”:

there’s a great point in that clip regarding social stratification from domesticating plantlife, and how we are NOT unique in this regard, as similar features have been found in certain ant species.

there are also plenty of videos of herbivores making caloric intake from other animals when given the opportunity. so if there really some sort of hierarchy induced by a creature’s ingestion of animal-derived fats, proteins, and cholesterol how come it isn’t across the board?

Thanks for sharing this talk on “the economic evolution of dominion”. Nice spin on the same motif, but combining evolutionary biology, anthropology and economics. Interesting to hear more mainstream professionals shifting blame from industrialism to agriculture. Sad that even the mainstream is in increasing agreement with anprim, making anprim seem increasingly mainstream but in a way lacking in effective resistance.

Regarding the difference in how humans have stratified compared to other animals and plants, in a way that's resulted in what we've done, I do agree with her pointing to the complex evolutionary social forces of dominion, supremacy toward a tragedy un-embedding ourselves from nature. In the end I would agree with her initial warning - a little bit of knowledge may be dangerous, but the idealization of the Pleistocene is old, and her conclusions lead to no real changes. But maybe speaking truth is the first step to action.

Animals do sometime eat out of their nature, and adapt dietways. My point is that the human primate's shift to hunting and meat eating altered our lifeway into a powerful, colonizing species that is no longer functioning mutually in habitat as it had, but as a destructive colonizing force.

About 1/3 of earth's arable land surface is consumed by both agriculture and pasture. And grazing livestock's interactions with habitat are degrading compared to wild grazers.

Acknowledging and despite the vegan bias of the source, there's an interesting analysis Why Plant Crops Don’t Kill More Wildlife than Pasture Raised Animals that highlights some studies on this. An example of the conclusions:
"...Following the harvest, 17 of the remaining 32 mice were hunted by predators such as weasels and tawny owls. Clearly, the loss of cover made them more vulnerable to predators. But the mice knew that too. So they adapted. After the harvest, they became cautious in their forays, refusing to venture far unless it was safe. Many left the fields and migrated to nearby scrub. On the farms, the number of mice on the fields declined by 80%. But the point is, they had not been massacred by a combine harvester. The half who were killed made an important contribution to the ecosystem. Without wood mice, predators such as foxes, owls, stoats, martens, badgers and hawks would have a hard time surviving."

Thanks for the discussion.

Ria thanks for your replies. It’s refreshing to have discussion that goes somewhere. Although I’m still surprised by the silence from AnPrims. Do you think that’s a sign that they are oppressive? They don’t even share their response, much less ask questions to explore your ideas. Your thoughts really strike the heart of their ideology, and they are so tied up in their ideology it’s easier for them to ignore you than deal with the possibility that their life is based on their misunderstandings. Maybe they don’t like being labeled patriarchal or supremacist, but by not responding they are acting it. Anyway, thanks for standing up for what you believe and discussing it.

given that all these comments are anon, how can you know that these commenters aren’t anprims themselves?

i think this is just a provocation to get an antipathetic response, since so far they have been more or less agreeable, at least curious.

Great piece Ria! Succinct yet comprehensive. As always, your writing sets the gears in my mind spinning. We can observe that traits identified with civilization can be found in sustainable primitive societies. Fire, hunting, hierarchy, etc. Toned down greatly, of course. I think most modern civilized people see this as a sign of inferiority in these groups rather than a sign of primitive people's understanding of the true nature of sustainability and a choice to live within what their landbase can provide. The South Seas expansion provides a good example. As people inhabited those islands, they began destroying the ecosystems. Some, like Easter Island, sealed their fate by cutting down the last tree. Others stopped what they were doing, seeing it would lead to their demise and changed their practices to live sustainably. I can imagine in both groups, someone explained what you explain in this article. Some of the island societies listened and survived (at least until European expansion). Others no doubt tossed the heretic to the sharks. Stay wild.

Guy McPhereson

go back to the comment sections of your local newspaper, or back to your facebook wall

The overemphasis of the term hunter-gatherer plays into the man-the-hunter myth. If you’re gonna label a group of animals (including humans) based on the way they eat, primitive humans have foraged for their mainstay for a much longer period of time. Plus, if civilization kept slowly creeping in, if you want to adapt to a pre-civ way of life, foraging is much more pre-civ. Humans hunting has done much more harm than humans foraging. Is eating plants less manly? Is that part of the patriarchy?

what a weird ideological lense you’ve put on human caloric requirements.

so women ate meat to appear more manly? this is really fucking stupid. early people were just hipsters. okay...

And that supremacy is no different in psychological parameters than white supremacy, because THE AOE-LIKE CREATURE that fell out of a tree 1 million years ago and stood upright on 2 feet got an arrogant superiority complex which has been epigenetically embedded and is innate and physiological viciousness and slashing burning smashing heathen rage.


^^WTF psychopathic species do you think we all are?

He's talking about the minority of people who go ape-shit due to drugs, fucked up wiring or toxic ideological brainwashing, not everyone.

I think the picture you have painted about our early hominid ancestors going about their daily lives with viciousness while slashing, burning and smashing things is false. Similarities to chimpanzee and gorilla society would indicate a quiet peaceful life gathering fruit and berries and raising offspring. In fact, this psychotic portrait you paint may just be a projection of your own inner tendencies. There were no swords and flamethrowers 500,000 years ago!

VERY IN DEPTH! I am excited to see the end result and see what JZ says in response to it

AnPrim is heavily invested in hunting, even if he agreed with this on some level, he’d have to stop himself from admitting it out loud. His fan base is mainly manly men, anti-vegan men. No way would he jump ship after all these years and all his meaty friends. Too much change, would throw his life out of whack. Play along: imagine JZ going vegan again!

Maybe if he acknowledges the Amazon women phenomenona as not being an anomaly but real and global, that the male hunter/ female gatherer binary is false. But as usual he never actually gets out in the field living his theories, its always armchair speculation and doom.
I would be all for JZ if he lived in a functioning wilderness totally self-sufficient with and equally distributed gender nihilist group of primitivists. But just saying the word " gender nihilist" makes him go into a derogatory tirade about their non-existenence and irrelevancy.

WTF is the 'Amazon women phenomenon'?

That women can run their own society without men. I'm being poetic calling it the Amazon women phenomenon after the Ancient Greek myth. Surely you have heard of,,,,,oh wait, you don't read books or history, ok, bye.

"being poetic" is how Le Fool perceives their own "brilliance"

Yes, I've heard of that. I didn't realize it had a pseudo-intellectual sounding academic name.

I enjoy creating words to capture a conceptualization.,.

We welcome all Amazonian Stirnerian women into our union of clans.

I have one living with me now, she commands the TV AND I do the dishes ;)

You realize it's now virtually impossible for anyone to live in "a functioning wilderness totally self-sufficient with and equally distributed gender nihilist group of primitivists", right? Even the last few pockets of real H-Gs don't live that way anymore.

I guess JZ doesn't pass your purity test (not that anyone could, given your criteria).

And why is it impossible?

"And why is it impossible?"

Because genius, civilization is everywhere. There is no escape from it. Go start a feral commune somewhere and within a few years the bulldozers will make roads, or a pipeline, or a farm, or a gas plant, or a fracking well, or a housing subdivision, or a logging operation, or a mine, or a transmission line, or etc., etc.

Your 'totally intact self-sufficient' wild foraging group won't last very long without outside disruption at some point. Maybe if you try it on a mountain top. Even the few existing real foraging groups in South America, India, or Sentinel Island are being disturbed.

This shouldn't need to be explained to you.

"the few existing real foraging groups in South America, India, or Sentinel Island are being disturbed."
Granted, but their minds have not been as severely and detrimentally disturbed as yours has been with a toxic defeatist negativity.

It's not about "defeatism", I am simply describing the reality of the situation.

I think we should be fighting and destroying civilization from wherever we live, in the here and now, not trying to run away to somewhere else to build some future utopia.

My biggest issue is how we're quickly found to be struggling alone in our "corner", while the rest of the sheeple including our "friends" are still in a trance.

What is possible will make me stronger if it doesn't kill me, so far all is good.

Breaking news: the State is possible. Not only possible, extant.

Where is the ‘dominant’ anprim response to this challenge from the margins ? Anyone out there?

Primis are the anti-vaxers of anarchy.

Because this and that.

trying to discern the origins of civilization sounds a lot like trying to figure out how many angels dance on pinheads.

I don't believe we will know. And I don't think it is important.

Who are we willing to be now & going forward, those questions are answerable.

"Who are we willing to be now"? A bunch of coward wasichus scared to sacrifice ANYTHING

assuming everyone's backgrounds. in the other thread it was "kill these fuckin wasichus"

Wasichu is someone who ruins the earth and doesn't respect wakan things it has very little to do with race

Lakota is a living language and there are many teachers

Is Zhachev now also Lakota? Impressive fluidity. Soon a Lakota tattoo to accompany the Japanese one?

Who is Zhachev

An attention seeking, feral, nomad, assassin, vegan, sniper, military tactics expert, music producer/DJ, stalker, harasser, misogynist sad boi with a Japanese-Lakota spirit.


"F" in Womens Studies?? ...But I love bitches!!

Zachev respects women, don't listen to the trolls!

i hope those angels get pricked or skewered so that they’ll stop dancing

Nettle, very good sentiments! In other words, the past is just water under the bridge, instead lets make sure we have clean water to drink in the future.

I can see how you might get that from what I wrote but that is not quite what I meant.
We are living in the ruins of decisions made in the past, the past didn't go anywhere. What I was getting at is how that all came about is largely unknowable. Trying to answer if the controlled use of fire lead to a one way path to civilization is imo unanswerable so let's stop wasting time on that line of questioning.

regarding humans and widespread use of controlled fire: there would charred remains everywhere dating thousands and thousands years back, right? There isn't that evidence to my knowledge! Fire/combustion did become our dominating technology however and still remains so.

What about all the coal everywhere like really big remains everywhere dating back thousands of years.?

You obviously skipped the geology section in your quest for knowledge, if you even know what that is, one sentence, Carboniferous Period 360 to 300 million years ago.
However, there are theories of highly civilized species existing pre Jurassic of which all traces have been obliterated by continental drift, tectonic upheaval and weathering.

Very interesting read, I haven't thought about anarcho-primitivism yet but it surely sounds interesting - especially the vegan perspective on that.
May I ask how your daily life is like as a vegan anarcho primitivist? I which ways do you apply these theories to your own way of living? Sorry for being such a noob..

Just like all anti-civs, living in the context of civilization is no longer a choice, it's taken over the planet.

One of our species' hallmarks is our ability to adapt to our surroundings, we're quite the generalist in this regard. My surrounding is urban with remnant patches of mainly second growth woods and wetlands. So I live off the lard of civilization's wastes and forage in ways helpful not hurtful to struggling wilds.

But there's no perfect answer, no utopia, everyone has to find there own way, individually or in groups or both.

make homo vegan again

we've never stopped having bodies that are vegan. and deers eat bacon

As I've said before why don't the like of Ria and Layla just go full anti-natalist efilist already. It's the most extreme reaction to physical life existence that there is.

How could anyone connected with nature and aware of reality think this is a good time to bring another human into existence. How 'bout we take a lesson from wild animals who slow or stop propagating when environmental conditions are tough. How tough does it have to get before humans understand that every human birth in today's context creates more suffering to self and others, exponentially? No matter your philosophical stance, in the end our species will have a die off, most likely at our own progress-trapped hands. How many of us do you want to experience it? Just imagine, no matter if its in a series of collapses (like those already starting) or a huge single event, how much civilized humans will suffer in the end.

For civilized humans, giving birth has become an ingrained tradition. And traditions are nothing more than peer pressure from a bunch of dead people.

Ria, the only time we should stop breeding is when menopause occurs.

living off the lard of civilization
a diseased and suffering thing
with a head full of false imaginings.

a mother hamster will often eat her babies. this act projects forth from fear of the cage and from a hope for extended survival in that same cage. the contradiction is notable but ultimately insignificant.

nom nom nom

Okay well... so human mothers should also eat their babies due to poor economic conditions where they live? Sounds like a sustainable source of food! Fuck for BabyBBQs 9 months later... Maybe the Virginia settlers were right after all! :S

it's hard not to, but we tend to interpret what we wish to be true. We want early humans to 'naturally' be the way we want to be today. For example, our culture has such a macho pro meat bias that we easily embraced Dart's 'killer ape' theory that early humans were vicious predators, man-the-mighty-hunter. We embraced it so thoroughly that many still hold the belief despite evidence now pointing to the opposite conclusion, that early humans of the time studied by Dart were running for their lives from bigger meaner creatures now extinct. And when people today did face the reality of early humans as prey not predator, they fixated on the 'caveman' days of hunting as the ideal time, anything earlier (foraging or scavenging) is too early.

Cherry picking bias is why when there is evidence of cannibalism or infanticide or rape or pedophilia. we have a knee-jerk reaction to excuse it away as an exception for some extreme condition, not the early human norm. And this is why it's so hard for even scientists to believe there have been early humans who did not eat meat, even though our biology is herbivore. When evidence of any meat eating was found, the behavior is overgeneralized as done routinely, and by every member of the group, and all groups. Then when evidence of a vegan diet is found, it's a knee jerk reaction to say 'it's safe to assume' this was not the case with everyone, or they had to be eating insects or lizards or something but there was just no evidence left. The bias is revealed in 'fall back' reactions.

It's almost like the closest thing we have to conceive some sort of utopian human lifeway is early human history, so we read our biased ideals into it. But there is benefit to learning from the past to find out what works, to help choose what lifeways to bring into our future. Also, at least for some, it's just interesting to know evolutionary history of humans and others. And to find our biases and debunk them informs us of our cultural lens, who we are today, and how we got here.

i mean, if you call the capability to be herbivore makes them "herbivore by nature", but it seems that they are called omnivores by scientists just because there's the capability for meat consumption as well. There were certain tribes that ate only meat because that was the only thing around, what are you going to eat up in the arctic regions other than whale blubber and fish? You might accuse me of "civilization bias" and all but i want to hear why you say that humans "are herbivore"

I'm with Ria here re: meat-eating bias. If Chimps are frugivores, so are we. This is because their diet includes non-plant-based food sources more often than ours, in the wild. Even modern h-gs only eat around 10-20% of their calories from meat. Omnivorous frugivores are we!

As Swift's A Modest Proposal was intentionally ironic as I'm sure yours is ;).,.

Gone to Croatoan......bring some sriracha

my point here, as a vegan for over a decade, is that hamster logics and hamster imaginings aren't at all even necessary.

tho, yes, pretend can be fun!
and fun is (usually) fun (and a stronk motivator!)!

You seem to more or less admit that you are on the anti-natalist track of things. The problem I have with your position is that it's really not our place to say whether life is worth it or not. This was a position that Renzo Novatore captured perfectly by concluding that life is neither good nor bad, simply tragic with interceding bits of good times and meh in between. I to arrive at a distilled agnostic position.

Ironically I'm someone who fits far more in the ancient, comparatively more carnal, old world then I do the post-antiquity world. I've actually suffered from being brought into a world touched by puritanism. I'd still probably do it again on the whole as I do affirm life in the grand scheme of things(I assume the homie le way does as well) in spite of EVERYTHING. This does not mean that I think the value of life should be subsidized by reified value however. I'm not anti-anti-natalist and really do see the logical points of the perspective of the likes of Benatar, Inmendham ect. Sure the species will die off either terrestrially or artificially or in perhaps some improbable Asimovian crazyness. I still say dance and detourn on the way. Personal suicides are of course welcome.

Well said, the whole notion of instructing others to prevent a potential creative emergence of life into the world is arrogantly playing god and side stepping the forever tragic path of eternal entropy, a condition one must embrace if an honest perception of human fate is to be ever joyfully celebrated. Let's turn this B-grade global capitalist horror movie into an intelligent tragicomedy masterpiece.,.

After technological birth control methods settled into mainstream's awareness about 80% of human pregnancies in the US were still unplanned. Now it's down to 40%, with about half of those aborted.

But for centuries if not millennia after civilization erupted humans propagated at high rates, guaranteeing strong commitment to civilization's 'progress'. Being we love to believe we're free and at least partially happy, denial of our progress entrapment takes the form of philosophizing and moralizing to pressure hyper-increasing our species' population, while other species languish under our notions and actions of supremacy over them, even to extinction.

You talk of the 'value of life'. To whom do you refer? When each human life, especially 'developed' human lives, takes heavy toll on lives of others, including our own species, and exponentially into the future, is that awareness of that toll not enough to free yourself from your indoctrinated shackles to procreate?

You want to dance? Dance wildly while smashing civilization, or healing wild places. It is there you will find true freedom & happiness.

I actually do have some personal agreements with you here and there. I have no desire to procreate personally and I can at least see the perspective of the anti-natal position. I'm obviously not down with anthropocentric leviathan.

When it comes to the value of life your trying to view it within a utilitarian lens which I reject. I think the value of life is in the eye of the beholder. It's an inherently subjective call. I don't think you can really smash civilization, only leave it behind physically and psychologically. Go silently into the night as far as registering history goes. Ultimately though, as le way correctly says, you have to make some type of piece with the entropic sufferable physical world.

"Meat-Eating Among the Earliest Humans" Is an on point interesting read, even with slightly less meat & civilization bias than other scientific reports. Most of it speaks to butchering not killing, scavenging with stone tools not suitable for hunting but cutting flesh and bashing open bones for marrow and skulls for brains, not spears and arrowheads. The anarcho-ecology colonization theory is in line with early human primates initially scavenging due to drastic change in environmental conditions, but then some eventually adapting into a more colonizing lifeway incorporating persistent carnivorous scavenging. This would have been an early step toward colonizing culture.

The likely timeline is that earliest bipedal primates foraged for millions of years, then scavenged for perhaps over a million more before the rather recent advent of organized hunting. Our herbivore biological bodies had time to adapt to including meat in the diet, and the fact that our bodies had to adapt points to meat not being our biological origins. Our biology followed our behavior.

Still to this day, of all the diets out there vegan is healthiest, especially raw vegan. Some patriarchal & civilization bias: Women who eat raw vegan are less fertile, perhaps due to lower body weight. Perhaps that's nature's way of keeping populations healthier and in check. Another glaring hint that meat and civilization are not an effective evolutionary path is how the "large brains come at a cost, making childbirth more difficult and painful for human mothers than for our nearest evolutionary kin"

The report connects early human behavior with modern chimp behavior - 3% of their diet is hunted meat. Besides saying it's a stretch to assume early human diets were the same as chimp diets, I question the validity of comparing any animal behavior in today's environment so heavily impacted and degraded by civilization to earlier times.

The author's portrayal of 'required nutrients' has a strong civilization bias. For example, B12 (that she says is only found in meat) is the biproduct of a bacteria found in soils that early humans ate roots from, and that washes into waterways that early humans drank from. Another underlying bias - it's good that humans developed 'big brains'. If that's what turned us into a colonizing species that brought Earth into its current condition, philosophy has to work hard to justify the big brained human 'goodness'.

Gotta give the Briana credit for rejecting Dart's misinterpretations on his Killer Ape theory that remains in the modern conscious to this day. It's kinda ironic that his proof of humans hunting other animals turned out to be jaw bones of humans being eaten by the likes of hyenas. And his proof of humans murdering each other being a child carried off by a raptor.

The later evidence that starts to point to humans hunting species of antelopes and zebras that went extinct doesn't question the possibility of human's role in causing these extinctions.

'meat made us human'? Maybe 'meat made us civilized' hmmmm … 'meat made us colonize'

Thanks for making me think.

Who’s up next?

Raw vegans! Oh, for fucks sake, what a load of shit. There's no fuckin way you can cut it to make it seem like cooked food is less nutritious than raw. No human ever had time to eat 15 hrs worth of spinach and bananas everyday. Asceticism taken way too far. You live off of processed food out of dumpsters and are advocating raw veganism. Ridiculous

than anything out of civilizations' dumpsters.

foragers to eat as they go, but where'd you get 15 hours from?

This is the kind of avitality stuff that Nietzsche and others talked against. I hate to see this kind of thinking taking over the niche zones of anarchy.

extended drake meme format (or alternatively brain expandy format or rick flair face format):

>Schopenhauer : (
>Stirner : (
> Nietzsche : (
> Novatore : )
> ur MOM : D

^Vince McMahon, not Rick Flair.

Animal ag feeds livestock B12

Holy shit Ria. WHY ARE THERE NOT MORE OF YOU IN ANTI-CIV ANARCHY! This is by far the most exciting debate on this fucking site!

"How could anyone connected with nature and aware of reality think this is a good time to bring another human into existence."

Because gregarious people gotta reproduce. Because "society".

Urban yuppies will be more often those refusing to have children, as they might see it as unnecessary burden (which it is) and a practice that doesn't get along with their luxurious pipe-dreams, which is all fine to me. They travel often, live in family-unfriendly condos, bike around instead of driving, hang out in gyms, go out in trendy social venues/spots that are even more family-unfriendly... That's why I'm suspicious of that whole narrative with LGTBQ as being an obstacle to reproduction, because "heteronormativity!". It isn't, you poor sociology theorists! Proof: LGB suburbans are still having kids, damnit. Because their living milieus are supporting not only a substitute of reproduction (while I see nothing wrong with adoption), but a reproduction of the conservative culture of the suburbs, that is all about the family -and technology- as the center of social life.

In a way I don't quite get the hate that the anti-gentrification crowd have of this urban yuppie subculture. The problem may just lie rather in the shitty awful architecture of these condos (lol) as well as their invasive re-development gimmicks in urban areas. Of course, some yuppies are into this bar & grill commodity worship... yet that's not even the stuff that's being vandalized most of the time! So strangely... many among this type of normies -no matter how I despise them- are pretty ethical in their urban lifestyles, intentionally or not. I wouldn't say as much when it comes to their polluting, invasive commodification of nature as "adventure" sports, or weekly escapes, tho.

Me finds it insane that those hippie and leftie crowds are still making babies... yet they also ain't as much connected to nature as we'd think (well for the leftists, it's pretty obvious). I guess this must be due to that delusional "last hope" of creating a better world through a better education? Tho I ain't sure these kids will grow to be their parent's idealized image.

"And traditions are nothing more than peer pressure from a bunch of dead people."

Well put, but it doesn't HAVE to be. Peer pressure will enforce anything that rides whatsoever. Including the pseudo-iconoclastic breaking of traditions like what the boomers have relatively achieved. A tradition if nothing else than an older practice, passed on from a generation to the next. So the absence of passing on an anarchistic tradition to the next generation is... self-defeating, no? I'd very much have loved that the weak yet previously-existing squatter culture from pre-millenial age be passed along to the millenials as anarchist tradition, yet that's not what happened. Was that due to the despise for traditions? If so, then that meant shooting at your own feet with double submachine guns, Ria.

But I rather believe that was just due to a carelessness, or being too busy with other kinds of politics...

To be continued in my new upcoming podcast/mini-essay... Tuesday at 11 PM on -after JZ's show- if all goes well!

cool. not gonna be able to listen at that time. will it be recorded? if so, post link pls.

Ooooh yeeeeah, white yuppy me me me lifestyle is fiiiine by you cos you are soooo self absorbed in your white celebrity anarchist culture, but some people have no choice they end up with kids in poverty like most of Africa and thing is there that parenthood isn't a social construct but an organic process which defies ethics or morality, it just is part of lifes essential experience.

"but some people have no choice they end up with kids in poverty like most of Africa and thing is there that parenthood isn't a social construct but an organic process which defies ethics or morality, it just is part of lifes essential experience."

I wasn't referring to Africa or any other poor region of the planet, where anyways 10 kids got about the socio-economic weight of 1 kid in rich Western countries. Overpopulation in poor countries is not as much an issue than in countries where kids are grown to be Gargantuesque consumers. The poorer areas of Africa aren't car-crazed, consumer-driven economies. Nigeria for instance has got a huge recycling/refurbishing economy, yet imports/production of new shit (outside of oil) is very low.

But where is your "they have no choice" argument applies to richer countries? What is the purpose of having kids in these countries when you're middle-class or above? I've been respectfully asking people around IRL why they decided to have kids, and all I had was emotional or repressive answers. That's because there's zero rationale with having kids in privileged conditions in the first place, other than some made-up beliefs. There's nothing wrong with those who had kids already, but just fucking stop! Nothing's forcing you... your God is dead, and what about your "race", your lineage or your nation? All fluff as well. The economic constraints are hardly there.

ultimately it's a side note to me, to stop gentrification all together would mean to stop money moving around in bank accounts. This would be nice overall but would be part of a more catastrophic anti-civilization phenomenon which none of us have in our power to effect even in the slightest. The "anti-yuppie" lense in the whole manner is kinda boring to me at this point, it's all just leftovers from the late 20th century angst, i mean what the fuck is a yuppie? Are people who work in restaurants as bartenders and waiters still yuppies, or is that just the graphic designers, programmers, banking eunuchs? So much recycled terminology that doesn't even begin to define the essense of modern "society". I appreciate your venom fauvenoir...

Finally, to have someone dictate to me a code of ethics I should be living by is the height of arrogance and against the whole anarch spirit. An anti-natalist must embrace voluntary celibacy to escape the critique that they are only vegan hedonists with an environmental consciousness.

Ethos: the characteristic spirit of a culture, era, or community as manifested in its beliefs and aspirations.

I use the word ethos because it is descriptive, not didactic. Although I do have thoughts on ethos of destruction and ethos of thriving, I don't think I'm dictating.

Regarding your anti-natalist rule, to get personal, I sensed that I shouldn't bring a child in the world after I was ripped out of my pre-school freedom along a forest edge & stuck into kindergarten. From age 18 on at my annual gyne appointments I requested my tubes tied, and was laughed at & repeatedly told there are 3 rules before that could happen, 1. Gotta have at least 3 kids, 2. Gotta be at least 30, and 3. Gotta have permission from a husband. When I accidentally got pregnant I pleaded with the dr to tie my tubes after giving birth, and was told the same 3 rules. I reassured him I wouldn't change my mind, and that I didn't want or have a husband, and refused to leave his office. He finally agreed to do it if I got a psychiatrist to confirm that I was making a 'sane' decision. That's how I got my tubes tied at 23. Later some men friends told me they were prevented from getting vasectomies, but only based on the first 2 rules, they weren't required to have permission from a wife.

But no matter when people wake up to it, it's not surprising that they meet resistance of civilization compelling them to propagate future consumers, stick them in schools indoctrinating hegemony of the predatory culture, and on to work.

Vegan yes, but hedonist? Only if pleasure means primal life. Whenever I think of hedonism, I picture people enjoying civilization. I enjoy civilization collapsing. I grieve for wild every day, and my only escape is restoration projects. Environmental consciousness - hope so.

Mkay, I was a tad harsh, I can truly sympathize with your feelings, I loath civ myself, but unfortunately I'm a biased parent, BUT ITS TOOOO LATE BABY, chee-ow ;)

I mean it's not anti-natalism (that sounds like rather nutty as a position) but rather a rationalist approach to what is in fact, an action with HUGE consequences. You're talking 'bout giving life to one or several human(s), not cats or dogs. These newborns, especially in a social context that solicits very little DIY and self-help but rather economic/political dependence (and interdependence), represent every time a new load of demands and also more production of shit. At least that's very likely, unless they end up as under-productive social loser scum like me. ;-)

Lots of challenging ideas and claims. But statements like “ of all the diets out there vegan, especially raw vegan, is the healthiest” sounds like ideology speaking. Healthiest in terms of our relationship to our habitat? Or in terms of our longevity? Or sense of physical wellness and energy? It makes us happier? We experience less illness?

if you want i'll cite sources, but to me it's also just common sense.

and the implications of this are powerful when considering the nature of our species

Love your fresh thinking!

But does it make sense to generalize one diet across the great variety of habitats? If our habitat makes us as we make our habitat, based in an organic reciprocity tending toward maximum habitat balance and health of all its life forms, wouldn’t it be the case that every set of relationships is unique, and therefore every diet too?

Also, what of raw meat and fish eating lifeways? Doesn’t that somewhat challenge the connection between domestication of fire leads to meat eating/predatory behaviour, leads to division of labour/domination etc.?

I wonder the story behind your name.

Thing is, humans don't belong in any and every environment they choose. That's the ways of colonizers. We and others in our living community thrive best when humans are not colonizing others' habitats, but living within our own.

Hey, if some human would rather catch an animal and rip it open with their sharp claws, then bite into its raw flesh with their sharp teeth, rather than pick some leaves & berries... so many thoughts... Do you think humans have an innate compassion for other animals?

Ria, ever considered podcasting?

I'd much rather podcast with an anprim or restoration ecology, at least anti-civ partner. If you know anyone who'd be interested in co-podcasting, feel free to send them my way. And, someone who could handle the techno part of it. No permaculturists please.

Thanks for the idea.

You and Deep Howls would be great together. I'll put in a word if you want

I'd say you could share my blog with them, but a lot of people are averse to vegans or primitivists, or especially the two together, but I don't bite, too hard, and I like to have fun, so that's an asset, I suppose.

hahaha, the blog’s name is “Howls of Deep Siberia”, in any case it’s Siberia which is deep, not the howls lol ; )

Sounds appealing. How can I get in touch

it’s tricky, huh. to somehow trade emails amidst a sea of trolls. i suggest a diaposable throwaway account, and then trade your real contacts and then delete throwaway.

All these projects and e-infrastructure and we still can't manage. What are we doing with our lives

we’re managing.

But still ethically entwined by society.,.

stfu spinoza


i am not anti-natalia. i dont even know who she is.

Pleeeese podcast! You offer SO much green anarchist vegan information that I hardly see around.

verbally; this was apparent in your chat with Aragorn! on the Brilliant podcast. You could have (and should have) nailed him on so many points. From your own admission in this thread, I take it you feel the same? Personally, my advice to you: get someone to help you figure out the technicalities about how to podcast and then podcast by yourself and on your own terms putting forward your own arguments. VeganTrove (from Austrailia) may be help to you regarding setting up. She has a simple but effective way of getting her points of view out on the net. Just start off simple and see where it takes you. It's about your message and not bells and whistles, remember that. Set up a YouTube channel and post it on @News. Don't underestimate yourself. You have a lot of interesting material and you provide links and evidence which is needed. James Corbett is another who started off simply, had no idea had to put it altogether, now how produces independent slick documentaries etc. Guests will want to be on your podcast and you will be invited on to podcasts too. You just get the confidence, prepare some notes etc and your articulacy will develop as you learn (as you go). It's obvious you have a burning need to get your perspective out there, so do it. Good Luck

they could practice by reading their blogposts out loud
and putting questions or arguments someone might ask in a bowl, to grab one at random and practice answering impromptu

If it were to come into fruition, I'd definitely want at least one other person, and it'd be cool to have a call in show, with longer discussions with people like the ones in this thread. And also for people to share what they're doing rewilding nature - that's my life.

I've always talked sloppy. When I was a young kid I hardly talked, just spent most of my time in the field & forest, mostly alone but sometimes with other kids, but little talking. When they put me in school they gave me speech therapy. And, it's more than articulation. There's a delay in how I organize my thoughts that's not conducive to the immediacy of speech. But free-flowing spontaneous friendly conversation is cool.

Hah, sooo contradictory, to be concerned about ones articulation, which is a construct of civilization. Stay in the forest and utter sporadic spontaneous sounds as we are born to do.,.

yeah, I feel guilty for all my civilized ways. Wish there was an option, but when life on earth is under attack the war is brought to everyone. There's no ignoring it with egocentric blinders, or wishing it away with positive thinking. But you're right, very self-contradictory.

I'm guilty of it also, but the up-side is in refining the line between decency and primal spontaneity, thus we instruct our children to go to the toilet rather than crapping on grandpa's kitchen floor ;).,.

the childhood experiences strike a note within me, even though i feel like in some ways i was the exact opposite. I have always been really good at talking and forming words, but i could never play "the game". A lot of people have mocked me and told me to shut up because i always seemed to interfere with smooth social interactions. A lot of my adult life i've been just learning how to "be lonely" and try not so much to care about what other people think. I don't even think schools can properly prepare children to be social anyway because of the ever shifting landscape based around technology and soft power...i mean, fuck expectations concerning the future, right?!


Of all these responses are any responding to her challenge to the anprim mythology part, from a believer or practitioner of it?

Keep us assessing each other on unnatural irrelevant factors, placing us in hierarchies, selling us dreams that turn our hope into fake lives.

Imagine if you were born to a primitive people, The nihilists might be repulsed at the thought, but the group identity had to take priority over the individual, resulting in an intense sense of belonging, with the group thoroughly needing most every individual for sheer survival.

I remember learning of a people, I think it was in 'central america', that had a group based justice system. If a person from one group harmed a person from another, a person who cared most for both the harmed and the harmer was chosen to hear the telling of events. That person decided how the harming group would make restitution. The group was responsible for the behavior of all.

Imagine if that kind of justice system were applied in civilization.

I say 'fuck expectations' when people say there's no use in trying to help heal remaining wild habitat. That's the only time I hope beyond hope.

Agreed, though some of us nihil-esque individuals can adapt and blend into any cultural system. Look at it this way, we have a carte blanche intellectual potentiality in the same bundle of human desires which all of us share. Forget the Freudian egotist individualism with its inbuilt selfish agenda, the nihil-esque Stirnerian individual is the omnipotent one giving guidance and overindulging the spook infested collectives with words of wisdom and a helping hand in awakening their own powers. I feel most at comfort amongst the indigenous animists because their mythologies involve and integrate living animals, ecosystems, Natures superiority over human status and therefore a code of conduct in respecting this condition of existence.,.


what are the ecological restoration projects/activities you have engaged in? Just looking for ideas, i happen to find ecological restoration a noble one. Tree planting is something i've wanted to do but there's got to be something that individuals can do other than that...

A good place to start is your local Native Plant Society to network with others knowledgeable on & actively doing restoration.

A while back I wrote a piece on my own restoration pedagogy, it's posted here

enjoy it, & know that other life will appreciate what you're doing

There's also this book by Douglas W. Tallamy getting into the science of why native plants. But it's a northeast US habitat, so plant species will vary.

"As development and subsequent habitat destruction accelerate, there are increasing pressures on wildlife populations. But there is an important and simple step toward reversing this alarming trend: Everyone with access to a patch of earth can make a significant contribution toward sustaining biodiversity.

There is an unbreakable link between native plant species and native wildlife—native insects cannot, or will not, eat alien plants. When native plants disappear, the insects disappear, impoverishing the food source for birds and other animals. In many parts of the world, habitat destruction has been so extensive that local wildlife is in crisis and may be headed toward extinction.

Bringing Nature Home has sparked a national conversation about the link between healthy local ecosystems and human well-being, and the new paperback edition—with an expanded resource section and updated photos—will help broaden the movement. By acting on Douglas Tallamy's practical recommendations, everyone can make a difference."

your popularity on this page has been much appreciated ;-)

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