Open letter: Sudan - the anarchists

  • Posted on: 6 August 2019
  • By: thecollective

Received via email

The Anarchist Confederation of Africa – ACA – Sudanese Section http://www.anarchy.no/africa.html

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Open letter on the CD, to the FFC and TMC, with preliminary demands regarding the Constitutional Declaration (CD); from the Spearhead of the Pro-Democracy Movement - the Anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section).

02.08.2019. Open Letter on the CD, to the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) and the Transitional Military Council (TMC), with preliminary demands regarding the Constitutional Declaration (CD); from the Spearhead of the Pro-Democracy Movement - the Anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section).

To FFC c/o SPA e-mail: MediaRequests@sudaneseprofessionals.org ; Info@sudaneseprofessionals.org ; and TMC c/o e-mail: info@sudan.gov.sd via oslo@mofa.gov.sd.

Introduction.

The Anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section) continue the fight for a best possible deal between FFC and TMC, i.e. best for the people, seen as a class as opposed to the superiors in income and/or rank, economically and/or political/administrative, i.e. the grassroots. This “Open Letter on the CD” e-mail campaign direct action, is a part of this struggle. In this campaign and struggle we have full support from the global anarchist movement, i.e. The Anarchist International (AI/IFA) and all its sections, and many of our demands are internationally analyzed, decided and supported. The anarchist-movement is international.

The main Anarchist positions. The Anarchists' (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section) position in the pro-democracy revolutionary movement in Sudan and more.

The anarchists, The International Workers of the World (IWW), the AI/IFA, the AISC and The Anarchist Confederation of Africa (ACA) in general, and its Sudanese Section, condemn 1. the totalitarian, ultra-authoritarian Transitional Military Council (TMC), and especially the deputy head of TMC, gen. Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo a.k.a. Hemedti, and his notorious Rapid Support Forces (RSF) paramilitary unit, and 2. the killing of several dozens of protesters; beating, torture and rape of many and attacks on hospitals - mainly by RSF, and demand 3. a full and fair investigation into the recent violence as well as social justice in the matter - taking into account a) the RSF is criminal and kills, and b) send Hemedti, the ruler and responsible of RSF, to prison for life - after a fair trial.

International investigations and trial, and no immunity.

Ad point 3. above. The mentioned full and fair investigation, must be done by a 100% Independent and a 100% International Commission (IIC), not a domestic or government run commission. The trials should be at a 100% International, and a 100% Independent Tribunal (IIT). There should be no immunity for the government at all, including no immunity for members of TMC and RSF. No-one should be above the law and optimal order.

The people’s class-struggle - without ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined).

Furthermore 4. the anarchists a) are a part of the pro-democracy movement, b) mainly support the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) and mean c) the pro-democracy movement, i.e. mainly the anarchists, the FFC and a sufficient majority of the people together (the 'people' here defined as the grassroots, i.e. seen as a class in contrast to the superiors in rank and/or income) - during the transition period (02.08.2019 planned to be 3 years + 3 months) probably can change the embryo-revolution in Sudan to a real revolution, and d) achieve some form of democracy via good economic-political work and a struggle without ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined - the opposite of anarchy, which includes optimal order and law), and e) perhaps later on and in the long run even achieve real democracy, i.e. anarchy; and also mean f) the power-sharing agreement between TMC and FFC (when all details are agreed upon) is probably a welcome and small first step in the direction of democracy and away from totalitarian, ultra-authoritarian rule in Sudan, and g) also mean the pro-democracy movement can avoid an abortion of the embryo-revolution by stopping possible counter-revolutionary attacks from TMC, RSF and Hemedti or other reactionary domestic forces (including ochlarchist authoritarian marxist a.k.a. communist infiltrators within in the SPA and FFC; they should all be expulsed) or foreign enemies of the revolution, mainly Saudi-Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Egypt.

Democracy.

Ad point d) and f) above; the Anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section) mean: The New Democracy in Sudan must be based on Federalism and Direct Democracy as in the Swiss Confederation! No to Presidential and ordinary Parliamentary Democracy! See the IIFOR-report "Federalism and Direct Democracy - the Swiss Confederation". (Click on: http://www.anarchy.no/swiss1.html). This should be implemented as soon as possible. See also IIFOR's and AI's report "REAL DEMOCRACY DEFINED! Real democracy – definition!" (Click on: http://www.anarchy.no/realdemocracy.html); for a more long term perspective (point e).

Armed forces, police and more.

The Anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section) mean: i) dismantling of the old regime, ii) accountability of its corrupt figures and the recovery of the looted property including property of the people, iii) dissolution and banning of all militias and paramilitary groups, including RSF, iv) use of armed forces only for national defense purposes, normally forbidden to use the military against civilians, and v) there must be sufficient non-ochlarchical police and independent courts to keep up law and optimal order. This, point i)-v), should be implemented as soon as possible.

No repression in Sudan in general, especially no repression against the Pro-Democracy Movement, including the Anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section), - and more.

The Anarchist Confederation of Africa (ACA) and its Sudanese Section, declare: Fellows in Africa - and especially Sudan! Contact ACA and join the ACA-network today! Be a networkmember/subscriber to the IJ@/ACA/ AI/IFA! Click here to subscribe! It is free! Feel free to forward this information to your own network, and/or link up the Website of ACA at your blog or homepage. Join in the struggle for and towards anarchy and anarchism, i.e. for socialism and autonomy; against economical plutarchy - that is capitalism; and against statism -- in the African countries, including Sudan - and world wide... Of course a struggle without ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined), the opposite of anarchist, anarchy and anarchism!!! A struggle for anarchy and anarchism as opposed to all forms of marxism (state-socialism), liberalism and fascism, including populism. A struggle for a movement of the societal, i.e. economical and political/administrative, systems -- in libertarian direction, less authoritarian degree... ACA, including its Sudanese Section, always works and demonstrates with dignity, uses real matter of fact arguments and adds weight behind via direct actions, mass actions, and via elections. More information? Contact ACA - Click here!

Best regards!

The Anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section).

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19.12.2018. Sudan. Protests ongoing in Sudan. A series of demonstrations broke out in several cities due to dramatically rising costs of living and the deterioration of the country's economy. [This is the start of the Sudanese Spring revolt; see the report on Sudan of 11.07.2019 in this document IJ@ 1 (41), titled: The embryo-revolution in Sudan - History and the latest developments - Anarchist point of view. In the report of 11.07.2019 the anarchists (AI/ACA) present the history of the embryo-revolution in Sudan and the latest developments per 11.07.2019. Ed. note.] Source: AIIS.

01.01.2019. Sudan. In January 2019, the protests in Sudan [see the report of 19.12.2018 in this document IJ@ 1 (41)] shifted attention from economic matters to calls of resignation for the long-term President of Sudan Omar al-Bashir. Central in this development was the Declaration of Freedom and Change of 01.01.2019 and the establishment of the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC). [The protests of 19.12.2018 are the start of the Sudanese Spring revolt; see the report on Sudan of 11.07.2019 in this document IJ@ 1 (41), titled: The embryo-revolution in Sudan - History and the latest developments - Anarchist point of view. In the report of 11.07.2019 the anarchists (AI/ACA) present the history of the embryo-revolution in Sudan and the latest developments per 11.07.2019. Ed. note.] Source: AIIS.

22.02.2019. Sudan. Sudan's President al-Bashir declares yearlong state of emergency on Friday 22.02.109, amid deadly protests against his rule (since 19.12.2018) as poverty worsens. Source: AIIS.

11.04.2019. Sudan coup: Protesters defy curfew after military ousts Bashir. Thousands of protesters have vowed to stay on the streets of the Sudanese capital, Khartoum, in defiance of a curfew imposed by the country's new military council. Long-time President Omar al-Bashir was overthrown and arrested on Thursday 11.04.2019 after months of street protests. But demonstrators say the military council is part of the same regime. The fresh stand-off has raised fears of a violent confrontation between protesters and the army. There is also a real danger that different elements of the security forces and militia could turn their guns on each other. The UN and the African Union have both issued calls for calm. A mood of celebration that followed news of 75-year-old Mr. Bashir's arrest quickly evaporated when organizers of the demonstrations called for a mass sit-in outside military headquarters to continue. "This is a continuation of the same regime," said Sara Abdeljalil of the Sudanese Professionals Association. "So what we need to do is to continue the fight and the peaceful resistance." Crowds on the streets of Khartoum waved flags and chanted "Fall, again!" - refashioning their previous anti-Bashir slogan of "Fall, that's all!". Mr. Bashir is the subject of an international arrest warrant issued by the International Criminal Court (ICC), which accuses him of organizing war crimes and crimes against humanity in Sudan's western Darfur region. It is not clear what will happen to him now that he is in custody. Early on Thursday, military vehicles entered the large compound in Khartoum housing the defense ministry, the army headquarters and Mr. Bashir's personal residence. State TV and radio interrupted programming and defense minister Awad Ibn Ouf announced "the toppling of the regime". He said Mr. Bashir was being held "in a secure place" but did not give details. Source: BBC.

12.04.2019. Sudan coup leader Awad Ibn Auf steps down. The head of Sudan's military council has stood down a day after leading a coup that toppled long-time leader Omar al-Bashir amid a wave of protests. Defence Minister Awad Ibn Auf announced his decision on state TV. He named as his successor Lt Gen Abdel Fattah Abdelrahman Burhan. It comes after protesters refused to leave the streets, saying the coup leaders were too close to Mr. Bashir. The army has said it will stay in power for two years, followed by elections. Mr. Bashir's downfall followed months of unrest that began in December 2018 over rising prices. At least 38 people have died in the protests. Source: BBC.

03.06.2019. Sudan protesters attacked. Dozens of people have died after Sudanese security services attacked protesters in the capital, Khartoum. Source: BBC.

04.06.2019. Sudan crisis: Military calls for snap election amid protests. Sudan's military leaders say they are scrapping all existing agreements with the main opposition coalition and will hold elections within nine months. The announcement came as the military faced mounting international condemnation for their violent attack on protesters in the capital, Khartoum, which reportedly left at least 30 dead. The crackdown came after the military and protesters agreed a three-year transition period to civilian rule. The Transitional Military Council (TMC), which has governed Sudan since President Omar al-Bashir was overthrown in a coup in April, and negotiators for the pro-democracy movement had also settled on the structure of a new administration. But the TMC's head, General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, said in a statement broadcast on state television that they had decided to "stop negotiating with the Alliance for Freedom and Change and cancel what had been agreed on". An election in nine months time would take place under "regional and international supervision", he added. The announcement came after leaders of the pro-democracy movement, who demand that a civilian government take over the running of the country, said they were stopping all contact with the TMC and called a general strike. Source: BBC.

30.06.2019. Sudan. Sudan protests: Deadly unrest as masses oppose the military. Vast crowds have taken to the streets in Sudan to demonstrate against military rule, with reports of deaths and injuries. The state news agency said seven people had died and 181 were hurt, citing the health ministry. The pro-opposition Central Committee of Sudan Doctors spoke of at least five protesters being killed. Sudan has been in turmoil since the military ousted President Omar al-Bashir in April. That followed a popular uprising against his rule. Mr Bashir seized power in a coup on 30 June 1989. Sunday's protest has been the biggest since dozens were killed in a crackdown on pro-democracy activists on 3 June, 2019. Tens of thousands defied the heavy presence of troops to demand that the ruling military council hand power to a civilian-led administration. Dubbed the "millions march", Sunday's mass demonstrations were the first since security forces on June 3 killed more than 100 people during the bloody dispersal of a protest camp outside the military headquarters, the focal point of the protesters' months-long struggle for democracy.

The Central Committee of Sudan Doctors said four people were killed in Khartoum's twin city of Omdurman while one protester died after being hit by a bullet in the chest in the town of Atbara. "There are several seriously wounded by the bullets of the military council militias in hospitals of the capital and the provinces," it added. The deputy head of the Transitional Military Council (TMC), Gen Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, said: "There are snipers who are firing on people, they shot three members of the Rapid Support Force and five or six citizens. There are infiltrators, people who want to jeopardise progress." The Transitional Military Council (TMC) is the current military junta governing Sudan. It was established on 11 April 2019 after the 2019 Sudanese coup d'état, and is formally headed by Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, Inspector of the Armed Forces, after Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf resigned as leader one day following the coup. Lieutenant General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo ("Hemeti") is formally the deputy leader but seen as the de facto real leader. Security forces fired tear gas to disperse demonstrators near the presidential palace and three other districts in Khartoum, AFP reported. Tear gas was also fired in Omdurman and the eastern town of Gadaref.

"We are here for the martyrs of the [June 3] sit-in. We want a civilian state that guarantees our freedom. We want to get rid of military dictatorship," one 23-year-old protester named only as Zeinab told AFP. If the military thought it could scare protesters, it was wrong. The protests are a massive show of strength by the pro-democracy movement. It has pulled off the biggest demonstration since the junta took power, despite an internet blackout and the security forces blocking bridges to prevent people from joining marches. Some are saying that hundreds of thousands rallied across Sudan, more than the number who took to the streets before Omar al-Bashir was ousted by his former allies in the military. The junta is clearly on the back foot - and has said it is prepared to resume talks with the opposition. But many wonder whether it can be trusted.

On Saturday 29.06.2019, paramilitary forces broke up a news conference called by the Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA), one of the main organizers of the protest. The military said it would hold the opposition responsible for any violence or loss of life in the protests. Gen Dagalo warned of "vandals" and a "concealed agenda" that might take advantage of the demonstrations. Gen Dagalo was formerly an ally of Mr Bashir but switched sides to force him out of power. He commands one of Sudan's most prominent paramilitary forces and has been accused of both human rights abuses in the conflict in Darfur and of using the paramilitaries to crack down on protesters on 3 June 2019. Talks between the TMC and the opposition collapsed after the 3 June crackdown, when security forces violently suppressed protests in Khartoum. They have not resumed despite mediation by the African Union (AU) and Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed. The anarchists, The International Workers of the World (IWW), the AI/IFA, the AISC and The Anarchist Confederation of Africa (ACA) condemn the TMC and the killing of the protesters, and support the pro-democracy movement. Sources: BBC, Al Jazeera and AIIS.

02.07.2019. Sudan and the Gulf monarchies. The Gulf monarchies are looking to Sudan to provide foot-soldiers for their ruthless plans for regional domination. In 2015, then-President Omar al-Bashir agreed to join the Saudi-led coalition which invaded Yemen to fight the Houthi rebellion, hoping the Saudis and their Emirati partners would help his regime by injecting cash into the collapsing Sudanese economy. But that didn't happen. Riyadh and Abu Dhabi never rewarded properly al-Bashir and instead focused on courting Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo (also known as Hemedti), the young and ambitious commander of the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) militia who was tasked with supplying Sudanese soldiers for the war in Yemen. For the de facto ruler of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Mohammed bin Zayed (MBZ), Hemedti is very important. To realize his regional ambitions, MBZ cannot use his own national army, as well equipped and trained as it is. He needs proxies and militias that are not associated directly with him to do his dirty work. While in Libya he has the loyalty of Khalifa Haftar to secure his interests, in Sudan he has Hemedti, who after al-Bashir's ouster is looking to take over rule of the country. MBZ likely sees great promise in the young militia commander. So far he has successfully fulfilled his duties, supplying Sudanese fighters to secure Emirati bases in the south and fight on the front lines, shielding Emirati soldiers from harm. But he has the potential to go beyond Yemen.

With an impoverished population of over seven million, Darfur practically offers a large recruitment pool, which could extend beyond its borders to other regions in Central Africa also suffering from high rates of poverty and instability. In other words, Hemedti, if not stopped, could expand his current militia for hire operation into a massive war enterprise, with MBZ as his main client and patron. This means the continuous victimization of Darfuri children and young men. They are being paid a little for their service, but while their commanders in Khartoum proclaim that their mission is to protect the two holy cities of Islam, they are in fact being used as firewood in a regional conflict they have no stake in. This military pact is not only hurting Darfuris, but the whole of the Sudanese nation. To ensure Sudan does not break it off and withdraw its fighters from Yemen, the Gulf countries have made it their priority to crush the Sudanese revolution and secure Hemedti's position of power. The young men of the RSF have already been deployed to attack and disperse protesters before. On June 3, over 100 civilians were killed, many beaten, tortured and raped at the hands of Hemedti's militia.

But nothing seems to deter the Sudanese people or wane their resolve. On Sunday June 30 2019, hundreds of thousands took to the streets again demanding the military hand over power to civilians. These massive protests were well-organized despite a near total internet blackout and warnings of possible violence by the RSF. The effectiveness of 1. neighborhood committees in establishing communication channels among protesters, 2. the financial support enthusiastically offered by expats, and 3. the fact that after seven months of continuous civilian protests that resulted in the June 3 massacre, the Sudanese are still coming out in such numbers, demonstrate 4. the perseverance and cohesion of the revolutionary movement in relentless pursuit of its goals. Can Hemedti be stopped? The international community has already shown that it does not have the political will to do much about it. The African Union has tried to mediate and put pressure, but the Transitional Military Council (TMC) has pushed back. The United Nations has only issued general statements and has failed to pass any resolutions. The European Union and the United States have called for the transfer of power to a civilian government, while still holding meetings with Hemedti. The anarchists, The International Workers of the World (IWW), the AI/IFA, the AISC and The Anarchist Confederation of Africa (ACA) condemn 1. the Saudis and the UAE, as well as UAE's de facto ruler Mohammed bin Zayed (MBZ), 2. Hemedti and his paramilitary RSF, the TMC and the killing of the protesters, and 3. support the pro-democracy movement.

But ultimately, it is down to the Sudanese people to salvage their freedom. The Sudanese should continue to protest, strike, and rally international support for their cause. They must prevent any normalization of life under Hemedti. This will hurt them too, but it is imperative to deprive him of any legitimacy to rule. Eventually, the struggle will be recognized. International public opinion could turn against Hemedti and he might lose all or some of the financial support he gets from the Gulf. Also - under local pressure, he might find himself in confrontation with the regular military. To avoid bloodshed - and as difficult as this is for the families of his victims - Hemedti could be offered amnesty and possibly exile in exchange for giving up power. He might, like al-Bashir before him, refuse the offer and choose confrontation. Hemedti would certainly lose any fight with the regular army, but having many of his fighters in Khartoum means there could be carnage. At this point, there is still hope for democracy in Sudan. If the revolutionary movement were to succeed, it would not only set the country on a path to peace and prosperity, but also halt the recruitment of foot-soldiers for the Gulf monarchies' wars, that could sweep Sudan and parts of Africa. Sources: Al Jazeera and AIIS.

03.07.2019. Sudan protesters resume talks with military council. Negotiations restart despite protest leaders placing conditions on resumption of transition talks. Sudan's protest leaders resumed face-to-face talks with the ruling generals on Wednesday 03.07.2019 after the African Union (AU) and Ethiopian mediators urged both sides to revive negotiations on a new governing body. The ruling Transitional Military Council (TMC) and an opposition coalition have wrangled for weeks over what form Sudan's new government should take after the military deposed long-time president Omar al-Bashir on April 11, 2019. Mediators led by the AU and Ethiopia's Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed have been trying to broker a return to direct talks between the two sides. "The Alliance for Freedom and Change met and decided to accept the invitation for direct negotiations" with the generals, protest leader Madani Abbas Madani told reporters on Wednesday 03.07.2019. The alliance placed several conditions for resuming talks.

"Our conditions included the categorical rejection of a permanent military presidency of the sovereign council, the ratification of previous agreements between the two parties, the handing over of a written document by the military council confirming this, and the review of confidence-building and approval procedures," Madani said before discussions began. Other conditions were the release of political detainees from the protest movement and the formation of an international committee to investigate the deadly disperal of a protest sit-in on June 3, 2019, that killed dozens of people, added Madani. The African Union and Ethiopia have mediated between the two sides after tensions soared following the deadly crackdown that also wounded hundreds. The military council announced on Saturday 29.06.2019 that a joint AU-Ethiopia proposal received on June 27 was suitable for the resumption of talks.

'Time for transition': The alliance's announcement came amid calls from the United Nations human rights chief, Michelle Bachelet, on Sudanese authorities to ensure a swift transition to a civilian government. In a statement released on Wednesday 03.07.2019, Bachelet said Sunday's (30.06.2019) mass protests - described as the "millions march" - appeared to be "unprecedented in recent Sudanese history". The protests reportedly took place in more than 10 major cities. Bachelet's office received allegations of excessive use of force against protesters, with at least 10 dead. She called on the military council, which has ruled Sudan since Bashir was deposed, to lift restrictions on the internet and investigate all allegations of excessive use of force, including reported attacks on hospitals by its notorious Rapid Support Forces (RSF) paramilitary unit. "This recipe of restrictions, unmet promises, and bouts of unbridled violence which are neither investigated nor punished is stoking massive resentment - as Sunday's (30.06.2019) protests showed all too clearly," said Bachelet. "If things continue like this, it will be a recipe for disaster." Her previous offer to send a human rights monitoring team and calls for investigations into killings and thousands of reported rapes since June 3, 2019, had been ignored. Opposition groups kept up demonstrations as they pressed the military to relinquish power, but talks collapsed in May 2019 over the make-up of the governing body and who should lead it - a civilian or soldier.

The anarchists, The International Workers of the World (IWW), the AI/IFA, the AISC and The Anarchist Confederation of Africa (ACA) condemn 1. the ruling Transitional Military Council (TMC), and especially the deputy leader of TMC, gen. Hemedti and his notorious Rapid Support Forces (RSF) paramilitary unit, 2. the killing of protesters and thousands of reported rapes and attacks on hospitals, and 3. support the pro-democracy movement. Sources: Al Jazeera and AIIS.

04.07.2019. Sudan: Opposition talks with army on transition continue. Negotiations over make-up of a new governing body enter second day as protesters continue push for civilian-led rule. Talks between Sudan's protest leaders and ruling generals entered a second day on Thursday 04.07.2019, with the key issue of forming a new governing body still unresolved following the military's overthrow of long-time president Omar al-Bashir in April 2019. Discussions - held after weeks of stalemate following a deadly crackdown on demonstrators calling for the Transitional Military Council (TMC) to hand over power to a civilian-led administration - focused on a draft proposal to break the deadlock put forward by Ethiopian and African Union (AU) envoys. The joint Ethiopian and AU blueprint calls for a civilian-majority ruling body. "Today, the discussion will be about who heads the sovereign council," a prominent protest leader who is part of the talks, Ahmed al-Rabie, told the AFP news agency, referring to the governing body. Rabie said Sudan's military rulers insisted the head be from the army. "[But] we believe that symbolically the head of the state must be a civilian," he said. The TMC and an opposition coalition have been at odds over what form Sudan's new government should take since the removal of al-Bashir on April 11 2019 amid months-long mass protests against his rule. As mentioned, talks on a power-sharing agreement collapsed when security forces violently broke up a protest camp in Khartoum on June 3 2019, killing more than 100 people. The raid outside the military headquarters was carried out by men in military fatigues, but the military council insisted it did not order the bloody dispersal.

Mass demonstrations: Negotiations come on the heels of massive protests over the weekend, held despite a widespread internet blackout. As mentioned, tens of thousands of demonstrators flooded the streets of Sudan's main cities on Sunday 30.06.2019 in the biggest show of numbers since security forces cleared the Khartoum sit-in. At least 11 people were killed in clashes with security forces and scores of others were wounded, according to protest organizers. Michelle Bachelet, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, called on Sudanese authorities on Wednesday 03.07.2019 to lift restrictions on the internet and launch proper independent investigations into all acts of violence. "It is essential there are prompt, transparent and independent investigations into how all these people lost their lives, as well as into the causes of such a large number of injuries," Bachelet said. More than 250 people have been killed since the uprising erupted against al-Bashir in December 2018, according to protest organizers.

'Cautious optimism': Protest leaders have further upped the pressure on the generals by calling for a mass protest on July 13 2019, to be followed by a nationwide civil disobedience campaign a day later. The campaign, if observed, would be the second such agitation since the June 3, 2019, raid. The first, held between June 9-11, 2019, paralyzed the country, hitting an already dilapidated economy hard. Protesters fear the generals intend to cling to power or preserve some form of authoritarian rule and have demanded an investigation into the recent violence. Suliman Baldo, senior policy adviser at the US-based NGO The Enough Project, said the resumption of talks inspired "cautious optimism" among those demonstrating over the possibility of an end to the political impasse. "But I would also take the word of the streets; these people demonstrating today and on the June 30 show there is no trust or recognition of the legitimacy of the TMC," Baldo told Al Jazeera. "The population will make Sudan ungovernable for the TMC unless it concedes an independent investigation [into the violence] and a full, legitimate transfer of power to civilian authority represented by the leadership of this protest," he added. "They are not going to accept a government by a warlord and an army that has been compromised into a militia force." Source: Al Jazeera.

05.07.2019. Sudan. Sudan protesters, ruling generals reach power-sharing agreement. Sudan's ruling military council and a coalition of opposition and protest groups reached an agreement to share power during a transition period leading to elections, sources said early on Friday 05.07.2019. The two sides, which have held talks in Khartoum for the past two days, agreed to "establish a sovereign council by rotation between the military and civilians for a period of three years or slightly more," African Union mediator Mohamed Hassan Lebatt said at a news conference. They also agreed to form an independent technocratic government and to launch a transparent, independent investigation into violent events in recent weeks. The two sides agreed to postpone the establishment of a legislative council. They had previously agreed that the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) coalition would take two-thirds of a legislative council's seats before security forces crushed a sit-in protest on June 3, 2019, killing dozens, and talks collapsed. "This agreement opens the way for the formation of the institutions of the transitional authority, and we hope that this is the beginning of a new era," said Omar al-Degair, a leader of the FFC. "This agreement is comprehensive and does not exclude anyone," said General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo a.k.a. Hemedti, deputy head of the Transitional Military Council (TMC). "We thank the African and Ethiopian mediators for their efforts and patience. We also thank our brothers in the Forces for Freedom and Change for the good spirit," said Dagalo, who heads the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) accused by the FFC of crushing the sit-in. Opposition medics say more than 100 people were killed in the dispersal and subsequent violence. The government put the death toll at 62.

The anarchists, The International Workers of the World (IWW), the AI/IFA, the AISC and The Anarchist Confederation of Africa (ACA) condemn 1. the ultra-authoritarian Transitional Military Council (TMC), and especially the deputy head of TMC, gen. Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo a.k.a. Hemedti, and his notorious Rapid Support Forces (RSF) paramilitary unit, 2. the killing of protesters and thousands of reported rapes and attacks on hospitals, mainly by RSF, and 3. support the pro-democracy movement and demand a full and fair investigation into the recent violence as well as social justice in the matter,- and 4. declare that the power-sharing agreement is probably a small and welcome step in the direction of democracy and away from totalitarian, authoritarian rule in Sudan, - and (sorry to say - probably much) later perhaps even a development towards real democracy - i.e. anarchy. Sources: France 24, Reuters and AIIS.

More about the power-sharing agreement and the sovereign council. Under the agreement, five seats of the sovereign council would go to the military and five to civilians, with an additional seat given to a civilian agreed upon by both sides. The ruling Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the civilian leaders also agreed to launch a "transparent and independent investigation" into the violence that began on June 3 2019 when scores of pro-democracy demonstrators were killed in a brutal military crackdown on a protest camp in the capital, Khartoum. Omar al-Degair, a leader of the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC), an umbrella organisation of opposition groups, said the agreement "opens the way for the formation of the institutions of the transitional authority, and we hope that this is the beginning of a new era". "Today, our revolution has won and our victory shines," the SPA said in the statement, which was posted on its Facebook page. In a statement on Friday 05.07.2019 morning, the Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA), which is part of the FFC, said the transition period would last three years and three months. The military would lead the sovereign council for the first 21 months, and a civilian would take over for the remaining 18 months, it said. The FFC would appoint a cabinet of ministers, the SPA said, adding that a legislative council would be formed after the appointment of the sovereign council and the cabinet. The two sides also agreed to set up a committee of lawyers, including jurists from the African Union (AU), to finalize the agreement within 48 hours. Khaled Omar, a protest leader, told reporters in Khartoum later on Friday 05.07.2019 that the deal was only "a first step". "Power transfer to a civilian transitional authority ... means that the revolution has put its feet [on track] to achieve its principal goals," Omar said. He added that the FFC does not seek revenge but wants "to achieve a comprehensive national reconciliation".

In Khartoum, thousands of people took to the streets to celebrate the breakthrough. But many called for continued protests and pressure on the military to implement its side of the deal. "We would like to see many more guarantees from the TMC because they've made many promises on handing over power only to backtrack later on," said Mohamed Ismail, a 34-year-old engineer who was part of a crowd in Khartoum's al-Sahafa area. Ashraf Mohamed Ali, another protester, called the agreement a "good move for Sudan". "It is important to see the implementation of the deal on the ground because the TMC's actions over the past month proves this council is not serious about giving up power to civilians," he told Al Jazeera via telephone. "And so to have an agreement is in itself a good thing. I am happy but we want to see the deal being implemented." Welcoming the two sides' decision to launch an investigation into the June 3 2019 killings, Ali said "any deal that doesn't include a real investigation isn't going to be satisfying for the majority of the civilians." The protesters were not happy about the possibility of Hemeti "being part of a new government", Ali said, referring to the RSF's role in dispersing the Khartoum protest camp. "But this is the reality," he said. "The RSF control everything in Sudan. So if you want to make a deal or if you want to have a civilian government, you need to know how to deal with them, in a way that could serve your agenda and without dragging the country into war." The United Arab Emirates (UAE), which backs the TMC (and the RSF), congratulated the two sides on the power-sharing deal. "We hope that the next phase will witness the foundation of a constitutional system that will strengthen the role of institutions with broad national and popular support," UAE's Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Anwar Gargash said in a post on Twitter. Abu Dhabi will stand with Khartoum in "good times and bad times", he added. UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres also hailed the pact and urged all sides to "ensure the timely, inclusive, and transparent implementation of the agreement and resolve any outstanding issues through dialogue". Farhan Haq, Guterres' deputy spokesman, said in a statement that the secretary-general also welcomed "the parties' commitment to conducting an independent investigation into the violence perpetrated against peaceful protesters, including the events on 3 June". Source: Al Jazeera.

08.07.2019. Sudan. A legal committee is engaged in formulation of the power-sharing agreement in its final shape. Member of the Transitional Military Council (TMC) and head of its political committee, Gen. Shams-Eddin Al-Kabbashi, announced that a meeting will be held on Tuesday 09.07.2019 between the TMC and the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) to agree on a united media address for presenting the power-sharing agreement and to inform about it. In a briefing he and the caretaker Undersecretary of the Foreign Ministry, ambassador Omer Dahab, gave Sunday 07.07.2019 to heads of the diplomatic corps accredited to Sudan, Gen. Al-Kabbashi said that a legal committee is engaged in formulation of the agreement in its final shape and about to conclude its work prior a celebration that will mark the signing of the final agreement, amid regional and international participation. He indicated that joint delegations of the TMC and the Forces of Freedom and Change will visit the states to inform about the agreement clauses. He pointed out that priority will be given to supporting peace country-wide and the communication with the armed movements as well as enhancing the citizens’ living conditions and the economy. Gen. Al-Kabbashi has expressed thanks to the Sudanese people for their patience. He also thanked the joint African – Ethiopian mediation and the Ethiopian Prime Minister for his efforts in bringing close the views between the negotiating parties. He further thanked the diplomatic missions and the government that they represent, especially the ambassadors of the sister and friendly countries, for their concern, support, advices and proposals to help achieving the agreement.

The Anarchist Confederation of Africa (ACA) declares: Fellows in Africa - and especially Sudan! Contact ACA and join the ACA-network today! Be a networkmember/subscriber to the IJ@/ACA/ AI/IFA! Click here to subscribe! It is free! Feel free to forward this information to your own network, and/or link up the Website of ACA at your blog or homepage. Join in the struggle for and towards anarchy and anarchism, i.e. for socialism and autonomy; against economical plutarchy - that is capitalism; and against statism -- in the African countries, including Sudan - and world wide... Of course a struggle without ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined), the opposite of anarchist, anarchy and anarchism!!! A struggle for anarchy and anarchism as opposed to all forms of marxism (state-socialism), liberalism and fascism, including populism. A struggle for a movement of the societal, i.e. economical and political/administrative, systems -- in libertarian direction, less authoritarian degree... ACA always works and demonstrates with dignity, uses real matter of fact arguments and adds weight behind via direct actions, mass actions, and via elections. More information? Contact ACA - Click here! Sources: Sudanese Media Center and AIIS.

The AI/ACA had a direct action called: "The embryo-revolution in Sudan - Protesters, generals reach power-sharing agreement - Anarchist point of view." - in the afternoon 08.07.2019. Source: AIIS.

10.07.2019. Sudan. Head of TMC meets with a delegation from the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC). Chairman of the Transitional Military Council (TMC), Lt. Gen. Abdul-Fattah Al-Burhan, on Tuesday 09.07.2019 at the Republican Palace met with a delegation of the Forces of the Declaration of Freedom and Change as part of the understandings and consultations between the two parties on the [power-sharing] agreement document. Lt. Gen. Al-Burhan has congratulated the Sudanese people on the agreement. Meanwhile, the spokesman of the Transitional Military Council, Gen. Shams-Eddin Al-Kabbashi, said in a press statement after the meeting that the process of discussion on the agreement document was completed, and that the document will be handed over to the parties on Wednesday 10.07.2019 for a final review. He announced that the agreement document will be ready for the signing in a large ceremony, stressing that all things are progressing well with the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC). Member of the negotiation committee of the Forces of Freedom and Change, Dr. Ibrahim Al-Amin, indicated that the agreement between the Transitional Military Council and the Forces of the Declaration of Freedom and Change marked the beginning of a new phase for transition from a period in which many grievances and corruption had taken place, to the era of democracy. He stated that the Chairman of the Transitional Military Council (TMC) has promised to cooperate closely with the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) for achieving the goal of enhancing the living conditions and issues of citizens. Source: Sudanese Media Center.

Junta, opposition poised to sign general features of Sudan agreement. The joint technical committee of Sudan’s ruling Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the opposition Alliance for Freedom and Change (AFC) [a.k.a. Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC)], a committee that includes lawyers of both parties, reviewed the final agreement document between the two sides on Tuesday 09.07.2019. The negotiation teams of the TMC and AFC held a similar meeting yesterday [09.07.2019] to review the general features of the final document of the agreement. Khalid Omar, Secretary-general of the Sudanese Congress Party and leading member of the AFC told Radio Dabanga that the meeting of the two parties was to review the general features of the agreement document to be signed within the next two days. After that they will start the implementation of what was agreed upon after the completion of consultations on the terms of the document within various blocks of the AFC, especially the armed movements who are currently meeting with AFC leaders in Addis Ababa. Source: Radio Dabanga.

African mediator: No differences between TMC and FFC. African Union Envoy to Sudan Mohamed al-Hacen Lebatt has denied existence of any differences between the Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) concerning the provisions of the [power-sharing] agreement. He attributed the delay to the return of the two parties for more consultations. The committee on formulating the agreement between the TMC and FFC is expected to finalize its work on Tuesday 09.07.2019 after a delay of one day from the date set by the African mediator. The two parties reached agreement last week on formation of a joint sovereignty council that would rule for about three years till holding of elections in the country. Chairman of the Transitional Military Council 1st. Lt. Gen. Abdul-Fattah Al-Burhan vowed in a televised address to the nation that the TMC would protect and implement what had been agreed upon. He added that they would work with their partners of the FFC and the other forces in close cooperation for building the homeland. Source: Sudanese Media Center.

NFF demands reconsideration of the power-sharing agreement. The National Front for Change (NFF) appealed to Transitional Military Council (TMC) and Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) to reconsider their bilateral agreement. But the NFF welcomed it as it constituted a reconciliatory manner. Leading member of NFF and head of Unified Party Al Fadil Adam described the agreement between the TMC and FFC as bilateral and constituted an exclusion trend. He added that the agreement would lead to a new crisis. For his part Head of National Party for Reform Hassan AL Samani Khogali said NFF supported the revolution since its beginning. But he said the [the power-sharing] agreement was unilateral saying the two parties were not representing all Sudanese people and the revolutionary movements. Source: Sudanese Media Center.

The National Interest (NI): How to save Sudan’s democratic revolution. During the past several months there has been a democratic uprising in Sudan, which forced long-term authoritarian leader General [and President] Omar al-Bashir out of office. The uprisings targeted corrupt regime with a search for establishing a democratic rule with elections, freedoms and good governance. Almost 70 percent of the protestors were women, who faced decades of oppression and exploitation more than anyone else in Sudanese society. The expectations were high when Bashir was put into prison and replaced by his own team of generals. Protestors wanted to transfer to civilians the authority of the Transitional Military Council (TMC) to create a democratic Sudan that they proudly risk their lives for. However, such a democratic transition is rare if it is even possible. Although TMC’s attitude about negotiations with the civilians appeared to be elite defection from the ruling strata, the powerful generals had a different idea for the transition period. Gen. Abdel Fattah al-Burhan and Gen. Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo have control in the country and want the civilians to end protests. They want to hold elections under their administration. This is what civilians do not want so far since they have the case of Egypt in mind. Egyptian president General el-Sisi took Egypt to the elections, oppressed the protests during and after the elections, and established a regime — one that is not much different than during the rule of former Egyptian leader Hosni Mubarak. The popular slogan “Either victory or Egypt” reflects this concern among the protestors.

The TMC declared the sit-ins illegal and described them as a “threat” to national security. Sudanese armed forces attacked protestors in Khartoum and other places brutally, killing more than one hundred and injuring five hundred on June 3 2019. The council considers this attack as a legitimate security move since they promised to hold elections in nine months under their military rule. The council controls state media and blocks Internet. However, its control over the media could not prevent dissemination of heart-breaking scenes of violence against peaceful civilian protests, i.e., beaten protestors, dead bodies thrown to Nile, bloody scenes of injured civilians. There are two reasons for this quick transformation from political stalemate to violent crackdown in Sudan. First, TMC’s control over the armed forces, in particular, the Rapid Security Forces (RSF) headed by General Hamdan Dagalo, empowered it against the civilians. These forces include thousands of militiamen, which grew out of Janjaweed forces used for regime crimes in Darfur. This paramilitary group is responsible for the crackdown on June 3 2019. Second is the regional support they received from Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Egypt. General Burhan met President el-Sisi in Cairo and the UAE’s Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan in Abu Dhabi. Also, General Hamdan Dagalo met with Muhammad bin Salman in Riyadh. They secured an aid package of $3 billion to strengthen TMC during the visits. The regional and international profile of Saudi and UAE rulers — and their backing of the TMC — is game changer in Sudan.

Almost as a recognition of their role in supporting TMC in Sudan, the U.S. undersecretary of state for political affairs, David Hale, reached out to Saudi deputy defense minister Khalid bin Salman and the foreign minister of UAE, Anwar Gargash. Dale underlined “the importance of a transition to a civilian-led government in accordance with the wishes of the Sudanese people” in his talk to them. This is an expression of a concern to two U.S. allies in the region and a difference of opinion on Sudan. Saudi and UAE have invested heavily in Sudan [mainly in TMC and RSF] and are likely to have influence on future Sudanese government. However, they like to manage the transformation of the country to prevent civilian rule in Sudan. Their desire is also shared by regional ally Egypt. The Saudi-UAE intervention in Sudan is also related to their plans for regional design from Yemen to Libya. They would like to eliminate the ability of Turkey and Qatar, their regional rivals, to play a role in Sudan. Turkey and Qatar sided with the popular uprisings during the Arab Spring, ..., and resisted against the Saudi-UAE blockade against Qatar for two years. Turkey and Qatari rapprochement with [President Omar al-]Bashir before the revolution was a serious concern for Saudi-UAE rulers. In addition, it is for their best interest to keep Sudanese military support in Yemen. General Burhan oversees almost ten thousand Sudanese ground forces in Yemen.

Despite discussions about a democratic transition, there has been no visible U.S. diplomatic activity in the country to date. The diplomatic role seems to be deferred to Ethiopia. The appointment of former Ambassador Donald Booth as Special Envoy for Sudan is a welcome development. His involvement in the crisis will raise trust to the United States among the civilians. The U.S. role is vital for a political solution to the current crisis before the situation creates chaos in the region. The United States has had complicated relations with Sudan and maintained sanctions against this country for a long time. Khartoum was bombed by the Clinton administration in 1998 over allegations of Al Qaeda support. President George W. Bush did not hesitate to break the U.S. policy and supported an indictment by the International Criminal Court in an effort to bring [President Omar al-]Bashir to justice. The U.S. commitment to bring Bashir to justice did not generate international support for this cause. During this period of time, the U.S. role was instrumental in signing of 2005 comprehensive peace agreement between South Sudan and Sudan, which paved the way for independence of former in 2011. Thus, the United States should not turn his back to Sudan after Bashir is removed from office. There is a vital role that the United States can play during the political settlement and its aftermath. The United States is the only actor, which can bring the African Union, the European Union, Gulf countries and Egypt to the negotiation table. There are different priorities and perspectives that should be negotiated by the U.S. third party intervention. The United States should also be involved in the reconstruction of economy in Sudan and the creation of peace dividends. The United States and the UN have, in the past, found success in Sudan. It is now time to take that success to another level. In this scenario, the U.S. would play the leading role for a constructive Africa-EU-UN position and limit ambitions of regional actors. Such a pre-emptive act of normalizing Sudan will certainly pay off in the form of international security. Most importantly, the U.S. role in this crisis would be to support a democratic transition. Source: Sudanese Media Center.

Deputy head of Sudan’s Transitional Military Council (TMC): I do not want to be president. The deputy head of Sudan’s Transitional Military Council, Gen. Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, denied reports of a rift with the country’s umbrella opposition movement group and said that he “does not want to be president.” Dagalo, who goes by the nickname Hemedti, denied reports of any disagreements between the ruling military council and the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) and said that there were certain political groups who “did not want an agreement to be reached between the parties.” During his interview with Al Hadath, Hemedti confirmed that the Transitional Military Council has so far reduced the number of its members to five people. He also described reports that the paramilitary group he leads, the Rapid Support Forces (RSF), were overreaching in their powers as “rumors spread in order to remove it from the scene.” The deputy head of the TMC admitted to the occurrence of “chaos during the crackdown of the mass sit-in protests,” referring to the June 3 2019 events in which thousands of protesters were forcibly removed in the capital Khartoum, adding that the person “responsible for the crackdown is now under arrest.” “We have arrested all those who committed crimes against the demonstrators. We have a lot to disclose pending the announcement of the results of an inquiry,” he said. “We will hold accountable all those from the Rapid Support Forces who are proven of involvement in committing abuses against the demonstrators,” he added. Source: Sudanese Media Center.

Sudan: the formation of a committee to examine industrial and commercial laws. The Sudanese Ministry of Industry and Trade announced the formation of a committee to examine industrial and commercial laws. The committee will be chaired by the undersecretary of the Ministry and have fifteen (15) other members. Speaking to Sudanese Media Center, Abdul Rahman Ajab, Deputy Secretary of the Ministry said that one of the committee’s tasks is to limit the laws relating to industry and commerce and related laws under the jurisdiction of the Ministry, in addition to submit proposals and recommendations to remove national and provincial legal confusion, noting that the committee will begin its functions over the next two days. In the same context, Fawza Mubarak, Registrar General of the Ministry’s Cooperative Societies, revealed various projects aimed at reducing the cost of living in the future, revealing the existence of (16) thousand cooperative societies in different states. - Internet service was restored Tuesday 09.07.2019 to mobile phone networks in Sudan, ending an interruption to the service that lasted for about a month, amid welcome by wide sectors of the citizens. Source: Sudanese Media Center.

EU dispatches envoy to Sudan, Khartoum calls for removing debts. Finnish Foreign Minister Pekka Haavisto will visit Sudan to convey the European Union’s support for the power-sharing agreement struck between the Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC). A statement issued in Brussels by the EU office for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy said that Haavisto was tasked by EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini to reach out on both the situation in the country and on how the international community can accompany Sudan on its transition path. “The Minister’s visit to Sudan, as well as Ethiopia, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates, follows the recent announcement of an agreement between the Transitional Military Council and the Forces for Freedom and Change on a civilian-led transition in Sudan,” the statement read. “The European Union remains fully engaged on the situation in Sudan, standing by the Sudanese parties who reached an agreement, as well as calling on regional and international actors to play a constructive role in this context. Thanks to his experience in the region, in particular in Sudan with both the EU and the UN, Minister Haavisto will explore how the EU can best support Sudan in its path towards democracy, respect for human rights and stability,” Mogherini said, according to the statement.

Meanwhile, UN Assistant Secretary-General for Human Rights Andrew Gilmour said he was encouraged by the agreement and urged all parties to “continue to resolve any outstanding issues through dialogue.” Speaking at the UN Human Right Council on Tuesday 09.07.2019, Gilmour said he hoped that the new agreement “creates new momentum for the protection of human rights in Sudan and that in the coming weeks we will be able to travel to Sudan to continue discussions on the opening of a fully mandated office.” He added that the UN Human Rights Office “stands ready and looks forward to assist Sudan to strengthen the protection of the human rights in a context of transition to civilian rule.”

Separately, the Sudanese government’s representative to the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva called on the international community to exempt his country from foreign debts and remove sanctions after the power-sharing deal was reached last week. According to the German news agency, Osama Hamida asserted that his country, in the wake of the “glorious revolution” led by the people, was heading towards a new future, adding that it was time to end the sanctions imposed on Sudan “and exempt it from external debts.” Source: Sudanese Media Center.

11.07.2019. Sudan. The embryo-revolution in Sudan - History and the latest developments - Anarchist point of view. Here we present the history of the embryo-revolution in Sudan and the latest developments. Protests have been ongoing in Sudan since 19.12.2018 when a series of demonstrations broke out in several cities due to dramatically rising costs of living and the deterioration of the country's economy. In January 2019, the protests shifted attention from economic matters to calls of resignation for the long-term President of Sudan Omar al-Bashir. Central in this development was the Declaration of Freedom and Change of 01.01.2019 and the establishment of the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC). By February 2019, Bashir had declared the first state of national emergency in twenty years amidst increasing unrest.

Coup d'état: on 11.04.2019, the Sudanese military removed Omar al-Bashir from his position as President of Sudan, dissolved the cabinet and the National Legislature, and announced a three-month state of emergency. That followed a popular uprising against his rule mainly by the FFC. The Transitional Military Council (TMC) is the organization of the military junta ruling Sudan from 11.04.2019. It was established on 11.04.2019 after the coup d'état, and is formally headed by Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, Inspector of the Armed Forces, after Ahmed Awad Ibn Auf resigned as leader one day following the coup. Lieutenant General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo a.k.a. Hemedti, is formally the deputy leader of TMC but seen as the de facto real ruler. Hemedti is also the ruler of the notorious Rapid Support Forces (RSF) paramilitary unit. Monday 03.06.2019 more than 100 people died and more than 500 were wounded in a government crackdown on a pro-democracy sit-in outside an army complex in Khartoum, according to the Central Committee of Sudanese Doctors. The government crackdown and killing etc. were mainly done by the RSF. On Saturday 29.06.2019, paramilitary forces - mainly from the RSF, broke up a news conference called by the Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA), one of the main organizers of the protests and also member of the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC). Sudan protests - deadly unrest as masses oppose the military. Mass demonstrations described as the "millions march": Despite a widespread internet blackout tens of thousands of demonstrators flooded the streets of Sudan's main cities on Sunday 30.06.2019 in the biggest show of numbers since security forces cleared the Khartoum sit-in. At least 11 people were killed in clashes with security forces and scores of others were wounded. More than 250 people have been killed since the uprising erupted against al-Bashir in December 2018, according to protest organizers. The Gulf monarchies are looking to Sudan to provide foot-soldiers, mainly from the RSF, for their ruthless plans for regional domination. 02.07.2019 the anarchists, The International Workers of the World (IWW), the AI/IFA, the AISC and The Anarchist Confederation of Africa (ACA) condemn 1. the Saudis and the UAE, as well as UAE's de facto ruler Mohammed bin Zayed (MBZ), 2. Hemedti and his paramilitary RSF, the TMC and the killing of the protesters, and 3. support the pro-democracy movement.

Power-sharing agreement: 03.07.2019. Sudan protesters resume talks with military council. Negotiations restart despite protest leaders placing conditions on resumption of transition talk. 04.07.2019. Opposition talks with army on transition continue. 05.07.2019. Sudan protesters, ruling generals reach power-sharing agreement. The anarchists, The International Workers of the World (IWW), the AI/IFA, the AISC and The Anarchist Confederation of Africa (ACA) condemn 1. the ultra-authoritarian Transitional Military Council (TMC), and especially the deputy head of TMC, gen. Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo a.k.a. Hemedti, and his notorious Rapid Support Forces (RSF) paramilitary unit, 2. the killing of protesters, the many beaten and tortured and thousands of reported rapes and attacks on hospitals, mainly by RSF, and 3. support the pro-democracy movement included FFC - and demand a full and fair investigation into the recent violence as well as social justice in the matter,- and 4. declare that the power-sharing agreement between TMC and the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) is probably a small and welcome step in the direction of democracy and away from totalitarian, authoritarian rule in Sudan, - and (sorry to say - probably much) later perhaps even a development towards real democracy - i.e. anarchy.

Direct action: The Anarchist Confederation of Africa (ACA) declares: Fellows in Africa - and especially Sudan! Contact ACA and join the ACA-network today! Be a networkmember/subscriber to the IJ@/ACA/ AI/IFA! Click here to subscribe! It is free! Feel free to forward this information to your own network, and/or link up the Website of ACA at your blog or homepage. Join in the struggle for and towards anarchy and anarchism, i.e. for socialism and autonomy; against economical plutarchy - that is capitalism; and against statism -- in the African countries, including Sudan - and world wide... Of course a struggle without ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined), the opposite of anarchist, anarchy and anarchism!!! A struggle for anarchy and anarchism as opposed to all forms of marxism (state-socialism), liberalism and fascism, including populism. A struggle for a movement of the societal, i.e. economical and political/administrative, systems -- in libertarian direction, less authoritarian degree... ACA always works and demonstrates with dignity, uses real matter of fact arguments and adds weight behind via direct actions, mass actions, and via elections. More information? Contact ACA - Click here! The AI/ACA had a direct action called: "The embryo-revolution in Sudan - Protesters, generals reach power-sharing agreement - Anarchist point of view." - in the afternoon 08.07.2019. The AI/ACA had a direct action called: "The embryo-revolution in Sudan - History and the latest developments - Anarchist point of view." - on Thursday 11.07.2019. Source: AIIS.

Lt. Gen. Jamal Omer announces aborting of coup attempt. Chairman of the Security Committee of the Transitional Military Council (TMC), Lt. Gen. Jamal Omer Ibrahim, announced that the security organs have foiled a coup attempt by a group of officers and non-commissioned officers in the Armed Forces and the Security Service in order to implement a military coup and to block the agreement between the Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC), which is imminent and leading to a political transformation that meets the aspirations of the Sudanese people. In a statement he gave Thursday 11.07.2019 evening, Lt. Gen. Jamal said that 12 officers in service and five retired officers were arrested, besides detention of four non-commissioned officers, adding that others will be arrested, including the leader of the foiled coup attempt. He said that the coup attempt was planned in this critical timing to impede the agreement between the TMC and the Forces of Freedom and Change. Source: Sudan News Agency (SUNA).

12.07.2019. Sudan. TMC, Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC), agree on the Political Declaration. The Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the Forces of Freedom and Change Declaration have agreed fully on the political declaration that defines all the transitional bodies. This was announced, in a press statement in the early hours of Friday 12.07.2019 at the Corinthia Hotel, by the African Union Envoy Mohamed Hassan Labat, in the presence of the Ethiopian Mediator Mahmoud Dreir. "The two sides met today at the Corinthia Hotel in a third round of negotiations held in a brotherly, constructive and responsible atmosphere," he said, adding that the Transitional Military Council and the Forces of the Declaration of Freedom and Change also agreed to meet on Saturday 13.07.2019 to study and ratify the second document, which is the Constitutional Declaration. Source: Sudan News Agency, a.k.a. SUNA.

Sudan junta: ‘Arrests after coup attempt foiled’. Sudan’s ruling Transitional Military Council (TMC) claims that it foiled an attempted coup d'état in Khartoum on Thursday 11.07.2019. Several alleged conspirators have been arrested, and more arrests are imminent. In a statement on behalf of the TMC via the official Sudan News Agency (SUNA) on Thursday evening, Lt Gen Jamal Omer Ibrahim announced that the security services have foiled a coup attempt by a group of officers and non-commissioned officers in the Armed Forces and the Security Service. He says the conspirators “attempted to implement a military coup and to block the agreement between the TMC and the Alliance for Freedom and Change (AFC), which is imminent and leading to a political transformation that meets the aspirations of the Sudanese people”. Arrested: Gen Ibrahim said that 12 serving officers and five retired officers have been arrested, as well as four non-commissioned officers. He did not release the names of those arrested, however he added that “others will be arrested, including the leader of the foiled coup attempt”. He highlighted that the coup attempt was planned in this critical timing to impede the agreement between the TMC and the AFC. Source: Radio Dabanga.

Sudan’s junta heads receive EU envoy in Khartoum. Finnish Foreign Minister Pekka Haavisto landed in Khartoum yesterday [i.e. Thursday 11.07.2918] for a one-day visit to meet with various Sudanese and international stakeholders on behalf of the European Union. In a statement ahead of his visit, Haavisto said: “This visit comes at an important juncture: an agreement has been reached between the Transitional Military Council and the Alliance for Freedom and Change in Sudan. I wish to sincerely thank the African Union/Ethiopian mediation for their efforts. I will convey EU’s strong messages of support and encourage both sides to continue negotiations in order to solve the still outstanding issues and allow for a swift transfer of power to a civilian government. It is crucial to quickly restore peace, guarantee prosperity, economic recovery, security, democracy and respect of human rights.” On arrival at Khartoum airport yesterday, Haavisto said: “A peaceful and orderly civilian transition remains the only viable way out of the current crisis in Sudan. The agreement reached last week between the Alliance for Freedom and Change and the Transitional Military Council represents a crucial step in the right direction. The European Union stands ready to support Sudan at this crucial moment of its history.” Haavisto will also visit Ethiopia, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates over the course of the next weeks to discuss the situation in Sudan.

Received at Republican Palace: The official Sudan News Agency (SUNA) reports that the Chairman of Sudan’s ruling Transitional Military Council (TMC), Lt Gen Abdelfattah El Burhan, received Haavisto at the Republican Palace in Khartoum on Thursday 11.07.2019, in the presence of the Undersecretary of the Sudan Foreign Ministry, Ambassador Omer Dahab. El Burhan briefed the Finnish minister on the developments in Sudan under the agreement which was reached between the TMC and the Alliance for Freedom and Change.

Hemeti: The Deputy Chairman of the Transitional Military Council, Lt Gen Mohamed Hamdan ‘Hemeti’, also received the Finnish Foreign Minister. In a press statement, Haavisto described his meetings with the El Burhan and Hemeti as constructive and fruitful, emphasizing that he is visiting Sudan as the envoy of the European Union. He described the agreement as an important step for realizing democracy, justice and freedom, adding that Sudan now has a great opportunity to improve many of its conditions. Haavisto affirmed that the European Union and Sudan will work together for boosting the cooperation between them in coming period.

Revolution: He congratulated the Sudanese people on the success of their revolution and the achievement of the agreement between the Transitional Military Council and the Alliance for Freedom and Change. The Undersecretary of the Foreign Ministry, Ambassador Omer Dahab, has welcomed Haavisto’s visit, highlighting that he is the highest European Union official to visit Sudan in the past period. Source: Radio Dabanga.

Woman highlight the alleged cost of being part of Sudan's uprising. The role that women are playing in the Sudanese uprising is gaining worldwide recognition, but it has not come without a cost, they claim.

Sudan's political situation. Since authoritarian leader President Omar al-Bashir was ousted from power in April 2019, protesters in Sudan have been calling for a democratic transition of power. After Bashir's fall, a military council took charge of Sudan, leaving some civilians angry that they still had no say in who would lead the country. Protests against the new power continued, leading to bloody military crackdowns against pro-democracy groups in the following months. Last week, the ruling military council and a coalition of opposition and protest groups reached an agreement to share power for a transition period until elections can be held. Following the agreement, the streets of Sudan erupted in celebrations. Women claim they were targeted during the protests. Women who have been involved in Sudan's campaign for democracy allege widespread attacks, beatings and sexual assaults at the hands of authorities. Local activists claim soldiers have even displayed women's underwear on poles to humiliate the women they sexually assaulted. "None of the Sudanese women will officially say that they were raped because of the stigma," claims activist and psychologist Hadya Hasaballah. "The regime always uses women as a tool to take revenge and to force its enemies to surrender. That's why the issue of women is directly linked to the dignity of society. In many instances, the regime tries to force society into surrender by humiliating women. The regime knows that when women are humiliated, society is humiliated," she explains.

Under the morality laws that pervaded Bashir's rule, women could be arrested or flogged for wearing trousers or having their hair uncovered said Sudanese journalist Wini Omer earlier this year. Campaigner Mahi Aba-Yazid made the decision to wear trousers at a sit-in and believes she was targeted for it. "We were a group of girls, we were beaten. I was the one beaten the most because I was wearing trousers. I was shot here at first (pointing to arm injury) and they still continued beating me. They were swearing with the worst words in the world, I can't mention any of those. Four of them gathered around me and continued beating me and insisted that I run."

Despite the risks to their safety, women continue to campaign for both democracy and representation. "We as a women's movement, demand that we have 50% (government) participation at all levels," says human rights activist Nahid Gabrallah. In Sudan, 87% of girls and women have undergone Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and one in three are married before their 18th birthday. The pivotal position that women have taken on in the protests could be said to have become a symbol of the driving force for change in Sudan. Sources: Euronews and Reuters.

What next for Sudan? After months of precarious and confusing on-off dialogue between Sudan’s Transitional Military Council and the Freedom and Change movement, a deal has finally been struck. For us here in Sudan, this has felt like purgatory. Nonetheless, a deal was agreed, whereby 11 members will hold positions on the transitional council for three plus years: five civilians and five military personnel, with the eleventh position being elected by the other ten members. In addition, the chair’s role will be rotated, 18 months for a military representative and 18 months for a civilian. This is a far cry from the Sudanese protesters’ original demands of majority, or absolute, civilian rule. What, therefore, has the public reaction been like?

Sudan is a collectivist society. Traditionally, in order for there to be social harmony, there needs to a homogenous ideology informed by tradition, history, spirituality and humanistic values, such as altruism. By nature, because of this collectivist societal structure, the Freedom and Change movement grew in popularity whilst, simultaneously, the military was seen increasingly as the foe. With this increased popularity, concessions over the old demands were made. In the streets, almost conspicuously, when citizens are now asked about their perception of the movement, the recurring answer is that it is wavering. Of course, this is not to defame its character, rather it should portray the complexity of the political situation in Sudan, and people’s anxiety and scepticism about the deal, and rightfully so. These anxieties are perhaps in the heart of every Sudanese person who yearns for change.

For most of Sudan’s contemporary history, military rule has ruled supreme. Hence, we face two great challenges: the smoothness of the transitional period; and how to maintain a functioning democracy afterwards. The first depends on the motives of the transitional council, and whether their efforts are focused on establishing a democracy or gaining popularity in order to resume their roles indefinitely. Already, some members of the military council are beginning to show their true motives, and their actions are indicative of long-term ambitions; the likes of Mohamed Hamdan Daglo, for example, notoriously known as Hemiti, has agreed to send troops to back Libya’s Khalifa Haftar. Long term commitments like this have nothing to do with achieving democracy in Sudan but are mixed with the bribing of some of the noble families in the country, and hiring foreign agencies to polish his image after accusations surfaced of his involvement in the killing of protesters. These political moves make us sceptical as to whether power really will be handed over to civilians after the three-plus-year period.

The second challenge, maintaining a democracy, is arguably the greater of the two. With a long history of revolutions and counterrevolutions, we have yet to witness a successful handing over of power through elections. This particular challenge produces two problems, of which the more immediate is to ensure that the duly elected party is not overthrown. We need a change in governing attitudes and political practice. Due to the supreme nature of the old regime’s rule, any party that opposed ousted President Omar Al-Bashir’s party was harassed and targeted.

It is unlikely that any party will be able to claim a majority, so a coalition is the likely outcome, bringing together varied political alliances. Our history of revolution makes it easy to see how a weak party could be overthrown by the military or, improbably, by popular protests. I believe that this may well be the single greatest issue facing us after a successful transitional period.

The traditional political attitudes and practices are deeply rooted, ancient to the point of archaic. For instance, the Umma Party, headed by Sadiq Al-Mahdi, has one of the largest bases in Sudan, yet it is a party that draws popularity mainly because of his ancestral link to Mohamed Ahmed Al-Mahdi, a pivotal figure in the historic removal of British rule in Sudan. Other large parties have similar dogmatic followings. Such attitudes are more despotic in nature than they are democratic. With the establishment of a democracy come accountability and liberation from dogma, as well as clashes between traditional political attitudes and progressive ones. These attitudes and practices trickle down to bureaucracy and even societal norms; from minor traffic bribes to nepotism.

With so much going on, and so fragile a situation, it is easy to become disheartened. However, the possibility of a democratic Sudan, where opportunity is limitless and resources are abundant, and the fear of regressing back to authoritarianism is palatable. That alone is enough to ignite and reignite hope in the people. Source: Mohamed Khougali at The Middle East Monitor (MEMO).

13.07.2019. Sudan. The mass protest on July 13 2019. Demonstrators in Sudan demand justice for army crackdown victims. Thousands of protesters rallied across the country to mourn dozens of demonstrators killed in a brutal raid last month. Thousands of Sudanese people have protested in Khartoum and other cities to mark the 40th day since the deadly dispersal of a sit-in outside the army headquarters that killed more than 100 people. Dubbed the "Justice First" marches, Saturday's (13.07.2019) demonstrations were called by the Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA), which has been spearheading the protests since December 2018 that led to the removal of longtime leader Omar al-Bashir by the military in April 2019. Chanting "blood for blood, we won't accept compensations", crowds of protesters marched through the main streets of the Red Sea coastal city of Port Sudan, and central cities of Madani and Al-Obeid, witnesses said. Many protesters were carrying banners that read "Justice for Martyrs", while others held photographs of the demonstrators killed in the raid. In the capital itself, witnesses said, a march was staged in the Haj Yousef area, but more were expected later in the day. The June 3 2019 raid came after talks between protest leaders and military generals, who seized power after al-Bashir's overthrow, collapsed over who should head a new governing body - a civilian or a soldier. Protest organizers say security forces killed at least 128 people during the dispersal and subsequent crackdown. Authorities, however, put the death toll at 61, including three from security forces.

The protest organizers hoped that large numbers take part in the marches similar to the massive demonstrations on June 30 2019, when tens of thousands of people flooded the streets in the biggest show of numbers in the uprising. At least 11 people were killed in clashes with security forces on June 30, according to the organizers. Saturday's (13.07.2019) rallies also put pressure on the ruling Transitional Military Council (TMC) as it is expected to meet the representatives of the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) a.k.a. the Alliance for Freedom and Change (AFC) – an umbrella organization of protesting groups - and sign a power-sharing agreement. African Union envoy Mohammed el-Hassan Labat said a meeting would take place on Saturday 13.07.2019 night. But Ahmed Rabei, a spokesman for the SPA, later said the protest movement called for the postponement of talks until Sunday 14.07.2019 "for more consultations" within the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) a.k.a. the Alliance for Freedom and Change (AFC) - on the deal. The signing ceremony was expected to take place earlier this week, but several delays have been announced, raising suspicions the two parties might still be divided over the agreement's details. The small Sudanese Communist Party, which also is a small part of the protest movement, criticized the "vague" talks between the TMC and the FFC/AFC. Mahmoud al-Khateib, the party's political secretary, said his party rejected the participation of the current members of the TMC. The deal includes a joint Sovereign Council set to rule for a little over three years until elections are held, along with a constitutional declaration, according to a copy of the deal obtained by the Associated Press news agency. A military leader is to head the 11-member council for the first 21 months, followed by a civilian leader for the next 18.

Protest leaders and anarchists (AI/ACA) called for a mass protest on July 13 2019, and another campaign on Sunday 14.07.2019, see the report on Sudan of 04.07.2019 in IJA 1(41) i.e. in this document. The mass protest on July 13 2019 happened. Will another campaign happen tomorrow Sunday 14.07.2019, as protest leaders and anarchists (AI/ACA) have called for? Time will show... The AI/ACA has a direct action called: "The embryo-revolution in Sudan - History and the latest developments - Call for action tomorrow - Anarchist point of view." - on Saturday 13.07.2019. Sources: Al Jazeera and AIIS.

Fake news from Hemedti! “We and FFC are partners in the revolution”: Hemedti. Vice President of the Transitional Military Council (TMC), Lieutenant General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo a.k.a. Hemedti, revealed that there are agents and intelligence operatives within the Rapid Support Forces (RSF), who are trying to distort our image and fabricate the facts, pointing out that the videos published are the biggest evidence [i.e. fake news from Hemedti]. Hemedti addressed a crowd in the Nile River state, and said that the bias of the Sudanese army to the revolution is true, calling for solidarity and unity between the Sudanese parties to get out Sudan of these crisis. He asserted that those who filmed these videos, were among those involved in the massacre of the sit-in [i.e. fake news from Hemedti]. He said that “My soldiers are not angels, but we would hold accountable all those who committed crimes against the Sudanese people.” [i.e. fake news from Hemedti] He added: “Without Rapid Support Forces, Khartoum would have been different.” He stressed that the military council is not an enemy for the forces of freedom and change, but a partner [i.e. fake news from Hemedti]. The anarchists (AI/ACA) declare: "Send Hemedti, the ruler of RSF, to prison for life - after a fair trial!" Sources: Sudan Daily and AIIS.

The US State Department calls for an independent investigation in Sudan. The US State Department, commenting on the report published by the British television channel BBC and the photographs it published on the violations of the regular forces [and RSF] against the protesters on June 3 2019, demanded an independent and thorough investigation into these violations. United States Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, Tibor Nagy, in a tweet on Twitter, said that: “The images in BBC Africa’s report on the June 3 violence in Sudan are heartbreaking. I, along with Special Envoy Booth, have made very clear to all parties that we expect an independent and thorough investigation to bring the perpetrators to justice.” The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) has published on Friday 12.07.2019, a report on the break up of the sit-in outside the army headquarter in Khartoum by force on June 3, and posted videos and photographs documenting violations against demonstrators. The anarchists (AI/ACA) declare: "Send Hemedti, the ruler of RSF, to prison for life - after a fair trial!" Sources: Sudan Daily and AIIS.

Sudan massacre: BBC investigation suggests attack ordered from the top. The BBC has found evidence that the mass killing of protesters in Sudan last month was ordered from the top and planned in advance. Two officers from the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF) who took part in the attack said instructions were given almost two weeks earlier. Source: BBC.

14.07.2019. Sudan. Direct action on July 14 2019. The anarchists (AI/ACA) called for a mass protest on July 13 2019, and another campaign and action (i.e. direct action) on Sunday 14.07.2019, see the reports on Sudan of 04.07.2019, 11.07.2019 and 13.07.2019 in IJA 1(41) i.e. in this document. The AI/ACA has a direct action campaign called: "The embryo-revolution in Sudan - History and the latest developments - Fake news from Hemedti! - Direct action on July 14 2019 - Anarchist point of view." - on Sunday 14.07.2019. The anarchists (AI/ACA) declare: "Send Hemedti, the ruler of RSF, to prison for life - after a fair trial!"

The Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) has called for "Civil disobedience and a general strike in all professions, trades, and popular sectors in the capital and the provinces, in concert with marches of expatriate Sudanese communities," on Sunday 14.07.2019. The anarchists (AI/ACA) are 1. in general against civil disobedience, i.e. in general - unless special cases - ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined), - but 2. support marches, general strike and similar, i.e. in general libertarian direct actions. The FFC must protest without civil disobedience and other forms of ochlarchy to maintain anarchist and general popular support. Real democracy i.e. anarchy, includes optimal order and law. Remember: the people, seen as a class in contrast to the superiors in rank and/or income, want optimal order and law and don't want ochlarchy. By working and protesting together - without ochlarchy - the anarchists (AI/ACA), the FFC and the people of Sudan - will win against the criminal ochlarchists of TMC, RSF and the de facto, real ruler and responsible: Hemedti. The anarchists (AI/ACA) declare: "Send Hemedti, the ruler of RSF - criminals included killers - to prison for life - after a fair trial!" As FFC declares: the clouds of spring — our spring — are beautiful and tomorrow victory is ours. Sources: SPA, FFC and AIIS.

Sudan crisis: Protester 'shot dead' in Sinnar as talks stall. A Sudanese protester has been shot dead by members of a feared paramilitary group, pro-opposition doctors say. The man was shot in the head by members of the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) in the south-eastern Sinnar state, during a protest against allegations of RSF brutality, they say. Neither the RSF nor Sudan's ruling military council has commented. The shooting comes as the signing of a power-sharing deal agreed earlier this month has once more been delayed. The military seized power in April following months of street demonstrations against long-time leader Omar al-Bashir but the protest leaders feared that real power remained in the same hands and continued their sit-ins. The march in the Sinnar town of al-Suki was called to demand that RSF fighters leave the town, which lies 340 km (201 miles) south-east of the capital, Khartoum. "RSF members deployed and initially started shooting in the air but later they opened fire at residents, killing a man and wounding several other people," a witness, who declined to be named for security reasons, told the AFP news agency. On Saturday 13.07.2019, thousands of people marched through Khartoum calling for justice for those killed on 3 June 2019, when the RSF attacked a protest camp, reportedly killing at least 128 people - a figure disputed by the military authorities. Some of the marchers lit candles, while others used the torches on their mobile phones to commemorate the "martyrs", on the 40th day since their deaths, an important milestone in many cultures.

What happened on 3 June? Two men who said they were serving RSF officers have told the BBC that the attack was ordered by the RSF leadership. Their allegations could not be independently verified by the BBC. The RSF leadership has denied responsibility, and claimed that rogue elements were behind the attack. The RSF grew out of the Janjaweed militia which was accused of carrying out a genocide in the Darfur region of western Sudan.

What's going on with the talks? The RSF commander, General Mohamed Hamdan "Hemeti" Dagolo, is the vice-president of the military council, seen by many as the real power in the country. On Saturday 13.07.2019, he gave a speech calling for all Sudanese to support the power-sharing deal and warned that without it, there was a risk of Sudan sliding into civil conflict. Under the deal, the military would head a transitional authority for 21 months, with a civilian figure in charge for the next 18 months, after which elections would be held. The agreement, brokered by African Union negotiators, also included a pledge to investigate the recent violence. However, it has still not been signed 10 days after it was agreed, with negotiators reported to still be haggling over the details. Source: BBC.

Sudan's paramilitary forces 'shoot at protesters, kill a man'. Witnesses say incident happened in El-Souk after residents rallied to demand paramilitary forces to leave their town. Paramilitary forces backed by Sudan's ruling Transitional Military Council (TMC) have fired at protesters in the southeastern state of Sennar and one man died of a shot to the head, according to medics and witnesses. The incident occurred in El-Souk in the state of Sinnar on Sunday 14.07.2019 when residents rallied demanding that members of the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) leave the town, witnesses told AFP news agency. "Residents of the town had gathered outside the office of the National Intelligence and Security Service (NISS) to complain about the RSF," a witness said. "RSF members deployed and initially started shooting in the air but later they opened fire at the residents, killing a man and wounding several other people," said the witness, who declined to be named for security reasons. A committee of doctors linked to the country's umbrella protest movement, the Freedom and Change alliance [i.e. the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC)], confirmed the incident. The resident "was killed by gunshot in his head fired by Rapid Support Forces militia", it said in a statement, adding that several other people were wounded.

Witnesses said El-Souk residents had gone to the NISS office to complain after the RSF raided a youth club on Saturday 13.07.2019 during a rally held to mourn the death of demonstrators killed in a Khartoum sit-in on June 3 2019. "During that rally, the RSF raided a youth club and beat the youths there," one witness said. On Saturday 13.07.2019, protesters held rallies in several cities and towns across the country, including in Khartoum, to mourn those killed in a raid on a protest camp on June 3 in the capital. More than 100 demonstrators were killed in the raid that day when armed men in military fatigues cracked down on protesters who had been camping out there for weeks, doctors close to the protesters have said. RSF commander Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo is the deputy chief of the TMC that seized power after the overthrow of longtime ruler Omar al-Bashir by the military in April following nationwide protests against his rule. Dagalo has dismissed claims that the RSF was responsible for the deadly June crackdown, saying it was an attempt to distort the image of his force. Source: Al Jazeera.

FFC continue its meetings with the armed movements in Addis Ababa. The meetings between the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) and the armed movements have continued today (Sunday 14.07.2019) in the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa in order to reach understandings on the transitional phase and the peace process. The Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF) took part in today’s meetings, after having separate talks in Addis Ababa, The Front asked Forces of Freedom and Change more time to discuss some of the points that the Front believes must be included in the document that will be agreed upon with the Transitional Military Council (TMC).

Today’s consultations between the Revolutionary Front and the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) focused on what should be included in the document to be signed with the Transitional Military Council (TMC). The most important issues are a number of points related to social justice and the point related to the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) and the security services. Today, consultations have been held between different parties under the umbrella of the Freedom and Change Forces. The meeting addressed a different points and lasted for only half an hour. Saif al-Din Issa, secretary of the Administrative Committee of the Transitional Council of the Sudan Liberation Movement, told Al-Arabiya and Al-Hadath that “the Front has demands to include many points in the document, Issues of war and peace. It also calls for a period of six months to negotiate on the issues of war and peace. ” “The SRF is trying to discuss all the points during the Addis Ababa meetings,” he said.

For his part, Yasir Arman, Secretary General of the “Sudan People Liberation Movement - North”, said that there is great optimism regarding the consultations, stressing the name of “consultations not negotiations, because all armed movements that participate in the meetings, are under the umbrella of the forces of freedom and change, and among FFC’s members” as he put it. Arman stressed that “the situation is going well now” and that “everyone is satisfied with the consultations that will achieve what is important to all Sudanese.” The two parties will resume talks at 9 pm local time on Sunday in the capital, Addis Ababa. Sources: Al Arabiya and Sudan Daily.

15.07.2019. The embryo-revolution in Sudan - History, recent and future development - The RSF is criminal and kills - Send Hemedti, the ruler of RSF, to prison for life - after a fair trial!

The anarchists, The International Workers of the World (IWW), the AI/IFA, the AISC and The Anarchist Confederation of Africa (ACA) condemn 1. the totalitarian, ultra-authoritarian Transitional Military Council (TMC), and especially the deputy head of TMC, gen. Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo a.k.a. Hemedti, and his notorious Rapid Support Forces (RSF) paramilitary unit, and 2. the killing of several dozens of protesters; beating, torture and rape of many and attacks on hospitals - mainly by RSF, and demand 3. a full and fair investigation into the recent violence as well as social justice in the matter - taking into account a) the RSF is criminal and kills, and b) send Hemedti, the ruler of RSF, to prison for life - after a fair trial.

Furthermore 4. the anarchists a) are a part of the pro-democracy movement, b) mainly support the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) and mean c) the pro-democracy movement, i.e. mainly the anarchists, the FFC and a sufficient majority of the people together (the 'people' here defined as the grassroots, i.e. seen as a class in contrast to the superiors in rank and/or income) - during the transition period (15.07.2019 planned to be 3 years + 3 months) probably can change the embryo-revolution in Sudan to a real revolution, and d) achieve some form of democracy via good economic-political work and a struggle without ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined - the opposite of anarchy, which includes optimal order and law), and e) perhaps later on and in the long run even achieve real democracy, i.e. anarchy; and also mean f) the power-sharing agreement between TMC and FFC (when all details are agreed upon) is probably a welcome and small first step in the direction of democracy and away from totalitarian, ultra-authoritarian rule in Sudan, and g) also mean the pro-democracy movement can avoid an abortion of the embryo-revolution by stopping possible counter-revolutionary attacks from TMC, RSF and Hemedti or other reactionary domestic forces, or foreign enemies of the revolution, mainly Saudi-Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Egypt.

The Anarchist Confederation of Africa (ACA) declares: Fellows in Africa - and especially Sudan! Contact ACA and join the ACA-network today! Be a networkmember/subscriber to the IJ@/ACA/ AI/IFA! Click here to subscribe! It is free! Feel free to forward this information to your own network, and/or link up the Website of ACA at your blog or homepage. Join in the struggle for and towards anarchy and anarchism, i.e. for socialism and autonomy; against economical plutarchy - that is capitalism; and against statism -- in the African countries, including Sudan - and world wide... Of course a struggle without ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined), the opposite of anarchist, anarchy and anarchism!!! A struggle for anarchy and anarchism as opposed to all forms of marxism (state-socialism), liberalism and fascism, including populism. A struggle for a movement of the societal, i.e. economical and political/administrative, systems -- in libertarian direction, less authoritarian degree... ACA always works and demonstrates with dignity, uses real matter of fact arguments and adds weight behind via direct actions, mass actions, and via elections. More information? Contact ACA - Click here!

Sudanese man shot dead during protest as sides wrangle over transition. As also mentioned in the report of 14.07.2019 in this document, paramilitary forces (a part of RSF) backed by Sudan’s ruling military council (TMC) fired at protesters in the southeastern state of Sennar on Sunday 14.07.2019, witnesses said, and one man died of a shot to the head, according to opposition medics, Reuters reports. The killing occurred with the military council (TMC) and civilian opposition (FFC) wrangling over final details of a power-sharing agreement ahead of elections after veteran autocrat Omar al-Bashir was toppled in a coup following weeks of mass protests. “The spirit of the martyr Anwar Hassan Idris was lifted in the city of al-Suki, Sennar state, after he was wounded by a bullet to the head by the Janjaweed militia [a part of RSF],” the opposition-linked Sudan Doctors’ Committee said in a statement. A number of protesters, who were rallying against the use of violence by the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF) to quell demonstrations, were wounded in the incident and some were in critical condition, it said. The RSF did not immediately respond to a request for comment. The RSF grew out of Arab militias, mainly the Janjaweed militia, accused of committing atrocities in the western state of Darfur. The RSF commander Hemedti, who is also deputy head of the military council TMC, has denied the allegations. In the capital Khartoum, military rulers and a coalition of protesters and opposition groups continued to haggle over the draft of a final constitutional declaration that is to organize a transition period to free elections and civilian rule. The two sides had reached a broad agreement on power-sharing during a transitional period but were still discussing some details, including the powers of a sovereign council comprised of civilians and military officers.

The Transitional Military Council (TMC) is also demanding immunity for its members from prosecution in connection with bloodshed committed before the accord. The anarchists are against such immunity in general, and especially for a) the possible criminals of TMC, b) the known criminals and killers of RSF, and c) Hemedti - the boss and responsible ruler of RSF and also deputy head of TMC. The two sides, TMC and FFC, were scheduled to meet on Sunday 14.07.2019 evening, but an opposition leader said his side requested a 48-hour delay for consultations, state news agency SUNA reported. A new meeting is now expected on Tuesday 16.07.2019. The rally in al-Suki, 340 km (201 miles) southeast of Khartoum, was held to protest at violence by the RSF, which is accused of killing at least 128 people in a raid on a protest sit-in in Khartoum on June 3 2019 and in subsequent attacks. The military council has confirmed at least 61 deaths. Long-stalled talks between the military council TMC and the opposition Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) collapsed after the violent dispersal of the sit-in. But direct talks revived after mediation efforts by the African Union and Ethiopia. Sources: The Middle East Monitor (MEMO) and AIIS.

Sinnar governor denies clashes between army and (RSF) forces. The governor of Sinnar state, Maj. Gen. Ahmed Salih Ahmed Abboud denied reports in some media about clashes between the armed forces and the Rapid Support Forces during the Suki events. The governor acknowledged the martyrdom of an (RSF) soldier, a citizen and number of casualties, including five citizens, pointing out that such events are expected in such security circumstances. Aboud stressed that the situation is under control, pointing to the stability of the security situation and the departure of many of the injured from hospitals. Sources: SUNA and Sudan Daily.

FFC delays talks on constitutional document. The Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) have requested to postpone discussions on the Constitutional Document for Tuesday 16.07.2019, an opposition official said to the Sudan News Agency (SUNA) on Sunday 14.07.2019. The statements came to deny reports that the FFC rejected to meet the Transitional Military Council (TMC) because of an article granting full immunity to the members of the Sovereign Council which could include some military suspected of crimes against protesters. “We asked the African mediator to postpone until Tuesday to conduct further consultations, and the African mediator responded positively to our request,” said Khalid Omer, the Secretary General of the Sudanese Congress Party and an FFC leading member. Khalid further stressed that the text of the constitutional declaration is an important document they want to have needed time to study and to establish it on solid bases, pointing they had not negotiated it before with the TMC. The Constitutional Document will serve as an interim constitution for the transitional period. The Sudanese Communist Party (SPC) on Saturday 13.07.2019 issued a statement denouncing the draft constitutional document stressing that it keeps laws restricting freedoms and the repressive Rapid Support Forces (RSF). The anarchists mean all paramilitary forces in Sudan should be dissolved and banned. Also, the leftist party SPC pointed to the “unacceptable” political immunity of the Sovereign Council members introduced by the mediation. As mentioned, the anarchists are against such immunity in general, and especially for a) the possible criminals of TMC, b) the known criminals and killers of RSF, and c) Hemedti - the boss and responsible ruler of RSF and also deputy head of TMC. Several opposition groups agree with the SCP in its criticism but say these issues have to be negotiated first but should not be rejected before talks. Opposition sources told Sudan Tribune that the FFC factions including the SCP held a “positive meeting” on Sunday 14.07.2019 to discuss the draft constitutional document. The opposition groups say the delay would also allow to include the contribution of FFC armed factions, which are discussing in Addis Ababa with their allied political forces, ways to achieve peace during the transitional period. Sources: Sudan Daily and AIIS.

African Union continues to postpone Sudanese army, protestors’ talks. The African Union (AU) is postponing talks between Sudan’s ruling military council (TMC) and the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) [here more correct FDFC], concerning the so-called “power-sharing agreement,” local media reported yesterday (14.07.2019). Following a recent announcement by the AU special envoy to Sudan, Mohamed El-Hassan Ould Labbat, about the meeting’s postponement, the Sudanese protestors declared their “reservation over some of the agreement’s clauses,” stressing that the accord was subject to, "and under consultations by the FDFC leadership.” “After the DFC’s board final approval on the draft agreement, we [DFC] will hold a joint meeting with the negotiating parties to discuss the outstanding points,” FDFC pointed out. The joint meeting was initially planned to take place on Saturday 13.07.2019. But the protestors’ movement has called for the talks to be postponed “for more consultations.” The deal was said to be aiming to “organize a transition period to free elections and civilian rule.” Local media recently reported that the small Sudanese Communist Party, which is also a small part of the protest movement, had rejected the power-sharing agreement over the fact that it “does not include an international investigation into the crackdown and keeps paramilitary forces in existence.” In a similar context, the Sudanese politician, Khalid Al-Aayser recently warned that the delays would lead to “a scene escalation.” As mentioned, the anarchists mean all paramilitary forces in Sudan should be dissolved and banned. Sources: The Middle East Monitor (MEMO) and AIIS.

The document contains items that are not agreed upon: FFC. Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) considered the constitutional declaration document received by the African mediator Mohamed Hassan Labat for approval is contrary to what was agreed on with the military council. FFC stressed that they requested more time to hold intensive meetings to study the document carefully and to write down the observations and visions of consensus in order to present it before the Military Council on Tuesday 16.07.2019. The leading figure in the forces of freedom and change, Siddiq Youssef, said they were surprised when they received the document of the political agreement that it includes items we did not agreed on in accordance with the joint agreement with the military council, which was held under the auspices of the African mediator, especially with regard to the sovereign council and the Council of Ministers. Youssef confirmed that the current document turned the table completely because it is devoted to a presidential republic instead of a democratic parliamentary system, which means resuming the negotiation. He added that the document in its current form is absolutely unacceptable because it does not meet the objectives of the popular revolution, which prompted the different components of the forces of freedom and change to engage in ongoing discussions to reach a unified opinion regarding the document. He explained that they did not expect any change in the content of the final document presented to a legal committee to draft it, pointing out that the amendments to the document include items that have not been addressed at any stage of the negotiations, such as a full immunity to the members of the Sovereign Council and to be entitled to appoint the Prime Minister, the Chief Justice, the governors of the provinces and other points which seek to give an absolute power to the military council. Sources: Independent Arabia and Sudan Daily.

Lt. Gen. Al-Burhan receives US envoy to Sudan. Chairman of the Transitional Military Council (TMC), Lt. Gen. Abdul-Fattah Abdul-Rahman, Monday 15.07.2019 received at the Republican Palace the American envoy for Sudan, Donald Booth, and discussed progress of the negotiations between the TMC and the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) for reaching an agreement on formation of a civilian-led transitional government. The American envoy said that the Sudanese people have waited long for the civilian-led government, adding that they also reviewed other issues. He described his meeting with the TMC Chairman as a good and fruitful, expressing his optimism that the dreams of the Sudanese people for a civilian-led government and an independent prime minister will soon be achieved, adding that he will talk with all parties in this connection. He indicated that the United States is keen and committed to helping the Sudanese people achieve agreement on the arrangements for the transitional period, stating that the United States wants to see Sudan surpass the current stage. Booth said that the United States will work with the other Sudan partners to get assured that the Sudanese people have reached breakthrough in this regard so that they receive support from the international community. Source: Sudan News Agency (SUNA).

EU calls for an immediate cessation of all violence against Sudanese. EU called for an immediate cessation of all violence against Sudanese people and the effective establishment of a civilian-led transition authority. In statement after the meeting of the EU Council discussed Monday 15.07.2019, The EU firmly condemned the violent attacks in Sudan on 3 June 2019, which resulted in the killing and injuring of many peaceful civilian protesters, as well as sexual and gender-based violence. It is clear that the responsibility lies with the Transitional Military Council (TMC) as the authority in charge of protecting the population. All human rights violations and abuses committed must be investigated in an independent and transparent manner, and perpetrators held accountable for their acts. “The EU remains deeply concerned by the deteriorating humanitarian situation in Sudan, and remains committed to help addressing the needs of the population. Obstacles to the timely delivery of the humanitarian assistance need to be removed immediately, including in Khartoum. Staff and supplies need to be brought in urgently to provide humanitarian assistance to more than 8 million people in need. Attacks against hospitals, medical staff and patients must stop. Respect of international humanitarian law and protection of civilians must be ensured, including safe and unhindered humanitarian access.” The statement added The EU said that its supports the call of the African Union (AU) for the establishment of a civilian-led transitional authority, appealing other regional and international actors to play a constructive and coordinated role in support of the leadership of the AU on this basis and stands ready to work with international partners in that regard. “A civilian-led transitional authority is the only partner with which EU-Sudan relations can be normalized. When Sudan embarks on a transition to civilian rule, the EU looks forward to supporting the country in tackling the social, economic and political challenges and implementing the necessary reforms, and will provide assistance accordingly.” Source: Sudan Daily.

More fake news from RSF! Former regime working to denigrate the (RSF): Jumaa. The Rapid Support Forces (RSF) revealed that it has arrested the man who made 59 video during breaking-up the sit-in area [June 3 2019], and promised to disclose about, upon the results of the investigation. Bridger, Jamal Jumaa, Spokesman of the (RSF), stated that 47 communication were filed against those who posed as (RSF) soldiers, as 18 communications have been decided, according to (Alsudani) newspaper. Juma said the former regime is denigrating the (RSF), along with organizations and foreign entities, through organized and systematic plan. [This is more fake news from RSF, earlier fake news from RSF and Hemedti, see the report on Sudan 13.07.2019 in IJA 1(41), i.e. this document]. Sources: Sudan Daily and AIIS.

Junta wants Sudan internet cut off again. The Transitional Military Council (TMC) filed appeal against the recent court decision to restore internet services in Sudan after a shut-down of a month that was ordered by the TMC. Sources close to the junta expect that the internet will be cut off again. The appeal of the junta (TMC) was filed by a consultant at the Ministry of Justice, sources close to the junta said. The TMC probably decided to appeal because of videos that were spread in the past few days, showing atrocities and the brutal way the sit-in at the army command was disbanded on June 3 2019. There was no official comment from the junta. The shut-down that lasted from June 10 until July 9 2019 was ordered by the ruling TMC citing reasons of ‘national security’ following the massacre during the break-up of the sit-in in front of the army command in Khartoum on June 3 2019. Source: Radio Dabanga. The anarchists (AI/ACA) strongly condemn TMC for trying to shut down the Internet again: TMC! Hands off the Internet!

“Sudan Daily” reveals points of contention between “TMC” and “FFC”. Sources revealed that the points of contention between the TMC and the FFC are related to the authorities of the government, the Legislative Council, and the immunity of military members of the sovereign council. The sources said that the military council (TMC) insisted on granting its members immunity within the Council of sovereignty, while the opposition (FFC) refused to do so in anticipation of the possibility of convicting military members in the investigations to be conducted on the violence that occurred during the last period. According to the sources, the second point of disagreement is about the members of the Cabinet, as the TMC wants candidates to have national, independent and qualified persons, while the FFC want national qualified persons only, so that the characters can be presented under previous political backgrounds. The sources said that the military council would like the government to approve the decisions in the Council of Sovereignty, while the opposition insisted that the decisions are effective without reference to the sovereign council. Source: Sudan Daily.

TMC: Constitutional Document prepared by Legal Committee. The Transitional Military Council (TMC) announced that the joint Constitutional Document, due to be discussed on Tuesday 16.07.2019 with the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC), was prepared by a joint legal committee that included three members for each party. The TMC affirmed that this document was delivered to the parties for studying it prior to its discussion. [Fake news from TMC?] Source: Sudan News Agency (SUNA).

FFC agree to include peace preamble to Sudan’s interim constitutional declaration. The Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) ’s political and armed factions agreed in a consultations-meeting in Addis Ababa on a draft text on ways to achieve peace during the transitional period to be added as a preamble to the Constitutional Document. The Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa is currently hosting a joint meeting between political and armed factions of the Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF). Among the participants there [are] Minni Minnawi, Malik Agar, Girbil Ibrahim, Yasir Arman, Mariam al-Mahdi, Ibrahim al-Sheikh, Mohamed Nagy al-Assam and Wajdi Saleh. Mohamed Zakaria SRF Spokesperson told Sudan Tribune Monday 15.07.2019 that the participants discussed peace issues within the framework of the transitional process, the challenges facing the formation of a transitional government, and the FFC organizational structure. "Until the morning of Monday, July 15, the parties have finished the first and basic issue of adapting the peace process to the framework of the democratic transitional process. A draft proposed by the SRF was welcomed and praised by the meeting and that it would be officially adopted (by the FFC forces)," he added.

Zakaria further pointed out that the peace text will be inserted as such in the draft constitutional declaration and presented during the meeting with the Transitional Military Council on Tuesday 16.07.2019. He said the FFC forces will brief the African Ethiopian mediation about this initiative. In addition, the FFC groups participating in the Addis Ababa meeting will hold a press conference to announce the "historical achievement", as he said. The armed groups have sought to ensure their participation in the implementation [of the] transitional period since last April when they agreed in discussions held in Abu Dhabi to distinguish between the pre-transitional period and the transitional period. The pre-transitional period will be dedicated to the peace process with the armed groups. Once the peace agreements are signed, the transitional period will begin with the inclusion of the armed groups in the three transitional institutions: the Sovereign Council, the Government and the Legislative Council.

Besides the peace process, [the] Addis Ababa meetings are also discussing the formation of the FFC leadership council which is seen as crucial before to launch the implementation of the three-year transition. Zakaria said that the lack of an inclusive FFC structure "disrupted" the decision-making process within the coalition and led to the emergence of a "flawed practice", as he said. "The Forces for Freedom and Change [FFC] need to take their decisions with the participation of all blocs," besides developing a negotiating "reference document" to serve as a guideline for making decisions in the negotiations with the military junta [TMC], he further said. The particularity of the SRF as armed groups, have prevented its leaders from coming to Khartoum and to engage with their comrades in meetings with the Transitional Military Council [TMC]. Source: Sudan Tribune.

16.07.2019.The anarchists call on the people of Sudan to join the "March of Millions..." on Thursday 18.07.2019. FFC and TMC sit again at the negotiation table. Sudan's opposition rejects judicial immunity for military rulers. RSF killing fuels public anger in Sennar, across Sudan. 11 dead this week in Darfur violence. 1 tortured to death by RSF.

AU mediation postpones Sudan talks. The African Union mediation has decided to postpone the meetings of the opposition Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) with Sudan’s ruling Transitional Military Council (TMC) until Tuesday 16.07.2019, at the request of the FFC; to conduct further consultation on the constitutional document. US Special Envoy to Sudan Donald Booth held talks in Khartoum with TMC Chairman Abdelfattah El Burhan on the latest developments between the junta (TMC) and the FFC. A leader of the FFC said that they asked the AU mediator to postpone it [the meeting between TMC and FFC and the African Union mediation] to Tuesday 16.07.2019 for further consultations, and the African mediator responded to the request, while the two sides have refrained from making press statements at the request of mediation. He said the document of the Constitutional Declaration was a new and important document that had not been subject to negotiation before, and [would be] organising the constitutional issues during the transitional period. Other sources said that the signing of the agreement has become difficult after the merger of the Constitutional Declaration and the political charter, especially since the latter overlooked many issues such as the issues of peace and displaced people. TMC Immunity. The sources stressed that the main points of disagreement over the constitutional declaration are the absolute immunity of the chairman and members of the Sovereign Council (SC), which gave the members of the sovereign council immunity from any prosecution in the next three years. It also provided that no cases against the members of the Council [SC or TMC or both?] shall be filed in the courts. Source: Radio Dabanga.

Sudan's opposition rejects judicial immunity for military rulers. Sudan’s main protest group is opposed to granting military rulers “absolute” immunity against possible prosecution for violence against protesters, a group spokesman said on Tuesday 16.07.2019, speaking just ahead of a meeting with the rulers (TMC). Differences over the issue of immunity have been a major sticking point holding up the signing of a power-sharing deal agreed this month between the Transitional Military Council and the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) coalition. Ismail al-Taj, a leader in the Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA), one of the main members of the FFC, said members of the coalition [FFC] had agreed that any immunity should be restricted. “The immunity proposed by the military council [TMC] in the draft constitutional document is an absolute immunity,” Taj told a news conference in Khartoum. “All the members of the FFC have agreed on the issue of immunity and to restrict it procedurally,” he told reporters, adding that the issue would be presented at a meeting later on Tuesday 16.07.2019 with the military council [TMC]. The power-sharing deal is meant to be the way forward for a transition in Sudan after military leaders ousted former President Omar al-Bashir in April following weeks of protests against him. The protests continued after Bashir left, with the opposition demanding that the military council [TMC] that took over cede power. Opposition groups accuse the Rapid Support Forces [RSF], a paramilitary organization linked to the military council [TMC], of responsibility for the death of more than 125 protesters during a raid on a protest sit-in in Khartoum on June 3 2019 and in subsequent attacks. The military council [TMC] has confirmed at least 61 deaths in the raid. It has blamed officers for the violence and promised to bring them to justice. But it has denied that members of the military council [TMC] were behind the violence. Taj said the protesters were still demanding an independent investigation into the bloodshed, which for a time stalled efforts to reach a deal between the FFC and the military council [TMC]. He said he expected “a great breakthrough” during the talks on Tuesday 16.07.2019, which he said would concentrate on opposition notes regarding the proposed Constitutional Document.The Sudanese Professionals’ Association (SPA), which spearheaded the protests against Bashir, also called on the military rulers (TMC) to cancel a decree that extends the state of emergency for three months. Sources: Nadine Awadallah, Reuters and Euronews.

SPA reiterates its reject to give full immunity to officials and comment on SRF. The Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA) confirmed that the current constitutional document is just a view from the military junta (TMC) in response to the proposals of the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) and not a document to sign. “The Association [SPA] agreed to the political deal between the military [TMC] and the forces of change [FFC], and denied any necessary observations on the document except the participation of young people and women, said the spokesman of the SPA, Ismail Taj in a press conference on Tuesday 16.07.2019. Taj called for the formation of an independent committee to hold accountable those who committed crimes against the Sudanese people, calling on the security authorities to ensure the safety of all citizens, holding the authorities full responsibility for all victims of the demonstrations. He said that the constitutional document submitted by the military council (TMC) granted the military absolute powers and granted his members full immunity from accountability, asserting that full immunity must be given in a procedural manner so that it can be lifted, if necessary. As mentioned yesterday (15.07.2019) the anarchists are against such immunity in general, and especially immunity for a) the possible criminals of TMC, b) the known criminals and killers of RSF, and c) Hemedti - the boss and responsible ruler of RSF and also deputy head of TMC. Taj criticized the decision to extend the emergency period announced by the military council (TMC), pointing out at the time that the heavy deployment of the security forces [mainly from RSF] in many public spaces in Khartoum is frightening and unacceptable. He noted that negotiations with the Revolutionary Front (SRF) in Addis Ababa paved the way for a comprehensive conference for lasting peace in Sudan. Sources: Sudan Daily and AIIS.

FFC and TMC sit again at the negotiation table. Talks between the (TMC) and the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) over the constitutional declaration of the transition will resume on Tuesday 16.07.2019, amid cautious anticipation from the Sudanese street about the results. Mohammed Sir al-Khatim, member of the FFC, stated that a meeting will be held today (16.07.2019) to include the Constitutional Declaration of the proposals made by Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF). In a statement, Sayid Ahmed said that, the negotiations will begin formally from where it ended in previous meetings, stressing the unity of the FFC, especially after the inclusion of (SRF) proposals. Source: Sudan Daily.

FFC hands its response on the constitutional declaration. The Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) on Tuesday 16.07.2019 handed over its response on the Constitutional Declaration to the African mediation team [The African Union (AU) and Ethiopian meditators] under which would govern the country during the interim period. The vision of the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) included rejection of the issue of granting full immunity to members of the Sovereign Council. The vision also included members of the Sovereign Council being tried before the Constitutional Court as well as a mechanism for lifting immunity from the members of the Sovereign Council. The Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) rejected in their view the subordination of the judicial and security organs to the Council of Sovereignty [a.k.a. Sovereign Council] alone, and also called for restructuring of these organs. The Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) announced their positions on the new Sovereign Council hours before the session of the negotiation on the Constitutional Declaration, Tuesday 16.07.2019, in the Sudanese capital. The Transitional Military Council of Sudan (TMC) and the Forces of the Freedom and Change Declaration [FFCD, mainly FFC] have been working for weeks on finalizing a power-sharing agreement reached earlier this month. Sources: Sky News Arabic and Sudan Daily.

Transition will be fragile and should be protected by the army: UN Envoy. The Special Advisor of the UN-Secretary General, and his Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan, Nicholas Haysom, stressed that the UN supports the African initiative to transfer powers to a civilian-led authority that is “protected by the army”. The anarchists ask UN - 'proteced by the army'? What does UN mean? Protected by 1. the Sudanese regular army (with possible criminals included killers), or 2. the RSF with known criminals included killers, or 3. both? Is the UN naive? The anarchists (AI/ACA) declare: "What is needed for Sudan and in general is democratically managed 1. ordinary police for uphold of civil optimal order and law, and 2. regular armed forces, without paramilitary units, for national defense. The military commanders have “the ability to move the country to a better place” or “towards a catastrophic crisis if they try to cling to power,” he said, adding that the country “is going through a deep economic crisis,” stressing that it could be overcomed “if they make progress towards the establishment of a civilian-led government.” The Sudanese now have a “wonderful opportunity” not only to deal with the current political crisis, but also with “the problems and fault lines that have affected this Arab-African country for more than 50 years,” he said. Sources: Asharq Al-awsat, Sudan Daily and AIIS.

Arab Leage Secretary-General Abul-Geit discusses support to transition process in Sudan with EU-envoy to Sudan Pekka Haavisto. Arab League [AL is the largest fascist organization of the world today, ed. note.] Secretary-General, Ahmed Abul-Geit discussed Tuesday 16.07.2019 with Finnish Foreign Minister, Pekka Haavisto, who is currently visiting Egypt, the latest developments in Sudan and the ongoing negotiations between the Sudanese parties over arrangements of the political transition in the country, besides a number of issues of common interest in the region. An official at AL general Secretariat stated that Abul-Geit briefed the Finnish Minister whose country is holding the EU rotating chair and now on regional tour in lieu of EU for following up situations in Sudan, on overall efforts made by AL to help Sudanese parties reach national consensus. The two sides sought ways of boosting regional and international support to Sudan to enable it to address all challenges and surpass the transition period in a way that meets aspirations of spectrums and all components of the Sudanese people including call for lifting Sudan from the state sponsors of terrorism, mobilizing economic and development support to Sudan, international normalization of Sudan’s relations with international financial institutions and writing off Sudan’s debts. Sources: SUNA and Sudan Daily.

Sudan junta head briefs US spec. envoy in Khartoum. Yesterday (15.07.2019), the US Special Envoy to Sudan Donald Booth held talks in Khartoum with TMC Chairman Abdelfattah El Burhan on the latest developments between the junta and the FFC regarding the efforts to reach a deal under which a civilian-led transitional government would be formed. The official Sudan News Agency (SUNA) quoted the US envoy after meeting with El Burhan that the meeting was good and fruitful, and the envoy, according to SUNA, expressed optimism about the near realization of the Sudanese dream of forming a government led by a civilian and independent prime minister. He added that the United States is interested and committed to helping the Sudanese, to reach agreement on arrangements for the transitional period, stressing that Washington wants to see Sudan has transcended the current stage. He stressed that the United States will work with other Sudanese international partners to make sure that the Sudanese have made a breakthrough in this regard, so that they could get support from the international community.

Special envoy: Donald Booth was named as US Special Envoy for Sudan in June “to push for a political solution to the current crisis that reflects the will of the Sudanese people”. Special Envoy Booth is a retired Ambassador who previously served as Chief of Mission to Ethiopia, Zambia, and Liberia. Ambassador Booth served as the US Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan from August 2013 until January 2017.

EU statement: European Union Foreign Affairs Council Monday reiterated calls for swift power transfer for a civilian-led authority saying it would not normalize relations with Sudan if they military council tighten grip on power. The calls come in a statement issued after a briefing made by Pekka Haavisto Finland’s Minister for Foreign Affairs to the EU Foreign Affairs Council on his recent visit to Khartoum and the region for talks on power handover to civilian authority after the collapse of al-Bashir’s regime. “A civilian-led transitional authority is the only partner with which EU-Sudan relations can be normalized,” said the EU statement. “When Sudan embarks on a transition to civilian rule, the EU looks forward to supporting the country in tackling the social, economic and political challenges and implementing the necessary reforms, and will provide assistance accordingly,” the statement said. Source: Radio Dabanga.

RSF killing fuels public anger in Sennar, across Sudan. Demonstrations broke out on Monday 15.07.2019 in Singa, capital of Sennar, condemning the killing of at least one person and wounding dozens by the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) government militia on Sunday 14.07.2019. Demonstrations and protests also continue across Sudan.

Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC): Allahjabo Kadkar, a leading member of the opposition Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) in Singa told Radio Dabanga that secondary school students in Singa took part in demonstrations yesterday (15.07.2019) afternoon, chanting slogans against the events in El Souki which claimed the life of at least one person and wounded more than 15 others [shot] by the RSF on Sunday 14.07.2019. Allahjabo also pointed to the launching of other demonstrations on Monday 15.07.2019 evening in Singa denouncing the events of El Souki. He said demonstrations were launched from three different locations in the town and gathered at the intersection of Sennar Street, chanting slogans condemning the killing of unarmed civilians by the RSF. On the latest developments in El Souki on Monday 15.07.2019, witnesses said that on Sunday evening, an angry group of El Souki residents demolished the full contents of the buildings of the National Intelligence and Security Service (NISS) which was taken by the Rapid Support Forces as their base, in addition to destroying two vehicles belonging to the security apparatus. He pointed out that there are about 15 wounded by the bullets of the RSF in the events being treated at hospitals in Singa and Sennar town. [The anarchists condemn the ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined) by the angry group of El Souki residents.]

Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA): The Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA) denounced the bloody events in El Souki. In a statement on Monday 15.07.2019, the SPA holds the authorities of Sennar state and the central authorities in Khartoum fully responsible for what took place in El Souki. At the same time, it warned all those who plan to use murder and violence against defenseless citizens, stressing that crimes against humanity do not fall [?] and justice will reach all criminals no matter how long or short. Governor: The acting governor of Sennar, Maj Gen Ahmed Saleh, told reporters in Singa that the events were the result of the march of the residents of El Souki on Sunday morning towards the office of the NISS guarded by RSF militiamen. He added that the clashes prompted the forces guarding the security offices to open fire killing two people from both sides and wounding others. He pointed out that there was a riot near the security offices after the gathering of large numbers of angry residents after the incident of the death of a resident and a member of the RSF. The governor acknowledged the death of a citizen and an RSF member and other five wounded, pointing that “such events are expected in such security conditions”.

Demonstrations across Sudan. “March of Millions for the Martyrs in Sudan” on Thursday 18.07.2019. Demonstrations continued in Khartoum and several cities in the states, including Singa, Kassala and Wad Madani. In the capital Khartoum, students held protests at the University of Science, Technology and Medical Laboratories, the University of Sudan, the Karari University and the Academy of Engineering Sciences, amid chanting slogans calling for retribution denouncing the military junta. The centre of Khartoum witnessed demonstration where the authorities fired tear gas in the street. On Tuesday 16.07.2019, the capital Khartoum and the states will witness signing of individuals and companies who have promised to participate in the financing of a Martyrs' Memorial, while inviting the architects, designers, innovators, landscaping companies and individuals to participate in the presentation of proposals for the Martyrs' Memorial. Wednesday 17.07.2019 will be dedicated to initiatives to commemorate the martyrs of the Sudanese revolution, and will also be used as a propaganda day for the districts’ committees in the capital and states in preparation to the “March of Millions for the Martyrs in Sudan” on Thursday 18.07.2019. Source: Radio Dabanga. The anarchists call on the people of Sudan to join the "March of Millions..." on Thursday 18.07.2019.

11 dead this week in Darfur violence. 1 tortured to death by RSF. Clashes between farmers in North Darfur have claimed the lives of 10 people. An East Darfur man was allegedly tortured to death in a militia raid on his home.

10 people were shot dead and five others were wounded in clashes between farmers in a dispute over agricultural land near Routrout village, 15 km southeast of Um Kedada in North Darfur on Sunday 14.07.2019. Resident Jaafar Daoud reported that an armed conflict erupted among cousins on agricultural land in the area. He added that weapons were used in the clashes and that a joint force of the armed forces, Rapid Support Forces (RSF) and local police managed to completely control the situation in the area. He explained that the joint force reportedly arrested and interrogated some suspects on both sides. He appealed to the competent authorities in the state and the center of the importance of following up the implementation of the weapons collection campaign, which has prevailed in most of the country in recent times.

Torture. Mudasir Abelrahman was allegedly tortured to death and two others were wounded, one of them seriously by the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) government militia in Ed Daein, capital of East Darfur, on Monday afternoon. Witnesses told Radio Dabanga that the incident took place during a raid by soldiers of the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) on a house at El Gubba district in Ed Daein, on suspicion that the residents of that house had stolen a mobile phone belonging to an officer. Witnesses said the force (RSF) raided the house killing Abdelrahman and wounding two others who were taken to a hospital. Source: Radio Dabanga.

Sudan university professors: Sack directors appointed by Al Bashir! Sudanese university professors conditioned the resumption of studies with realisation of nine demands, the top among them dismissal of university directors and their deputies who were appointed by a decision of ousted President Omar Al Bashir. Last week, a number of universities announced the resumption of studies after a closure of about seven months, while the University of Khartoum announced the resumption of the study in stages from next week. The University Professors’ Association (UPA) held a press conference in Khartoum on Sunday 14.07.2019, in which it rejected the decision to reopen the universities unless the demands of the memorandum of the lecturers at the universities, colleges and higher institutes are met. According to a statement distributed to journalists on Sunday 14.07.2019, the lecturers condition the return of politically dismissed professors and students to work and study at their universities and monitoring all violations and injustices against professors and students and bringing the perpetrators to justice. The statement also called for the dissolution of jihadist student units, the removal of their weapons from mosques and stores at the campuses, and handing them over to the Sudan Armed Forces in order to preserve the lives and safety of students, as well as the dissolution of the university police and restoration of the university guards. The statement stressed that higher education institutes and universities should be managed in accordance with the laws that prevailed until June 30, 1989, until the preparation of alternative democratic laws that establish independence, institutions and democracy [would] be submitted to a transitional parliament for approval and work according to alternative policies [when agreed upon]. Source: Radio Dabanga.

17.07.2019. Sudan. The anarchists (AI/ACA) declare: "No struggle can be successful if it is an unconscious one, and if it does not render itself a clear and concise account of its aim and the knowledge, strategy and tactics of the road ahead to achieve this aim! It is study time of optimal revolutionary activity for the pro-democracy movement in Sudan!" BBC reports: Sudan military and civilians sign deal to end deadly turmoil. The military has been pushing for immunity from prosecution after the protester deaths, but this is absent from the signed deal. It does, however, promise an investigation into the violence.

Early on Wednesday 17.07.2019 The Anarchist International and The Anarchist Confederation of Africa (AI/ACA) sent out two press releases to anarchists, unions (included the Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA) that also hosts the FFC), media (several Sudanese), mandated persons including embassies (also Sudanese), etc., i.e. to many groups broadly defined and persons, in Sudan and Africa in general, and world wide.

The first press release was titled "The New Democracy in Sudan must be based on Federalism and Direct Democracy as in the Swiss Confederation! No to Presidential and ordinary Parliamentary Democracy! Best regards AI/ACA.", and the content was IIFOR's report "Federalism and Direct Democracy - the Swiss Confederation". (Click on: http://www.anarchy.no/swiss1.html).

The second press release was titled "Learn quick how to make the embryo-revolution in Sudan to a real revolution and achieve democracy - and later on even real democracy, i.e. anarchy. Best regards AI/ACA", and the content was a) "Basic course in economical-political systems, i.e. anarchism and other -isms (anarchy/anarchism, liberalism, populism/fascism and marxism), arranged by the Economical-Political Seminar (EPS) in cooperation with the Anarchist International University Federation (AIUF) and the International Institute for Organization Research (IIFOR)." (Click on: http://www.anarchy.no/course1.html); and b) IIFOR's and AI's report "REAL DEMOCRACY DEFINED! Real democracy – definition!" (Click on: http://www.anarchy.no/realdemocracy.html).

Remember from the report on Sudan of 15.07.2017 in IJA 1 (41) i.e. in this document, - that "the anarchists a) are a part of the pro-democracy movement, b) mainly support the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) and mean c) the pro-democracy movement, i.e. mainly the anarchists, the FFC and a sufficient majority of the people together (the 'people' here defined as the grassroots, i.e. seen as a class in contrast to the superiors in rank and/or income) - during the transition period (15.07.2019 planned to be 3 years + 3 months) probably can change the embryo-revolution in Sudan to a real revolution, and d) achieve some form of democracy via good economic-political work and a struggle without ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined - the opposite of anarchy, which includes optimal order and law), and e) perhaps later on and in the long run even achieve real democracy, i.e. anarchy; and also mean f) the power-sharing agreement between TMC and FFC (when all details are agreed upon) is probably a welcome and small first step in the direction of democracy and away from totalitarian, ultra-authoritarian rule in Sudan, and g) also mean the pro-democracy movement can avoid an abortion of the embryo-revolution by stopping possible counter-revolutionary attacks from TMC, RSF and Hemedti or other reactionary domestic forces, or foreign enemies of the revolution, mainly Saudi-Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Egypt."

Central to achieving "some form of democracy via good economic-political work... [and] later on ... real democracy, i.e. anarchy." is a high degree of knowledge on the matter by the activists, the spokesmen and -women and preferably all the others of the pro-democracy movement, i.e. mainly the anarchists, the FFC and a sufficient majority of the people together (the 'people' here defined as the grassroots, i.e. seen as a class in contrast to the superiors in rank and/or income). This means learning the study material in the two above mentioned press releases as quick as possible by the pro-democracy movement, especially the activists of the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) and its most prominent member-organization the Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA). The staff of EPS, AIUF and IIFOR is ready to help you with the study online via e-mail all of the day and in the evening, and this teaching service from EPS, AIUF and IIFOR is free of charge. You! Just begin the study today! No struggle can be successful if it is an unconscious one, and if it does not render itself a clear and concise account of its aim and the knowledge, strategy and tactics of the road ahead to achieve this aim. It is study time of optimal revolutionary activity for the pro-democracy movement in Sudan.

In addition to the mentioned study material, you should also repeat the reports on Sudan of 13.07.2019, 14.07.2019, 15.07.2019 and 16.07.2019 in IJA 1 (41), i.e. in this document,- headlined: 13.07.2019. Sudan. The mass protest on July 13 2019. Demonstrators in Sudan demand justice for army crackdown victims. Thousands of protesters rallied across the country to mourn dozens of demonstrators killed in a brutal raid last month. 14.07.2019. Sudan. Direct action on July 14 2019. 15.07.2019. The embryo-revolution in Sudan - History, recent and future development - The RSF is criminal and kills - Send Hemedti, the ruler of RSF, to prison for life - after a fair trial! 16.07.2019. The anarchists call on the people of Sudan to join the "March of Millions..." on Thursday 18.07.2019. FFC and TMC sit again at the negotiation table. Sudan's opposition rejects judicial immunity for military rulers. RSF killing fuels public anger in Sennar, across Sudan. 11 dead this week in Darfur violence. 1 tortured to death by RSF.

TMC and FFC sign political agreement. The Transitional Military Council (TMC) and Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) Wednesday 17.07.2019 signed with initial letters at Corinthia Hotel in Khartoum the political agreement. The TMC Deputy Chairman, Lt. Gen. Mohamed Hamadan Dagalo, signed on behalf of the Transitional Military Council, while Ahmed Al-Rabie signed for Forces of Freedom and Change. The deal was signed in presence of the African mediator, Professor Mohamed Al-Hassan Labbat, the Ethiopian mediator, Mohamed Dirir and representatives of local and international media. Lt. Gen. Dagalo said that the agreement will open wide the door for partnership with the FFC, while professor Lebbat described the agreement as a big gain for the Sudanese people and the Ethiopian mediator Dirir said the consensus was a decisive and significant step in progress of the negotiations. Source: Sudan News Agency, SUNA.

Sudan's military, protesters sign political accord as part of power-sharing deal. Sudan’s ruling military council [TMC] and an opposition alliance [FFC] signed a political accord on Wednesday 17.07.2019 as part of a power-sharing deal aimed at leading the country (nation) to democracy. The agreement was signed in Khartoum in the presence of African mediators following a night of talks to iron out some details of the agreement reached earlier this month. The deal is meant to pave the way to a political transition in Sudan after military leaders ousted former President Omar al-Bashir in April 2019 following weeks of protests against him. “We want a stable homeland, because we have suffered a great deal,” Ibrahim al-Amin, a leader in the opposition Forces of Freedom and Change [FFC]coalition, said after the ceremony. Ethiopian mediator Mahmud Dirir said Sudan needed to overcome poverty and called for the country to be taken off a U.S. list of states that support terrorism. The sides [TMC and FFC] are still working on a constitutional declaration, which is expected to be signed on Friday 19.07.2019. Sources: Reuters and France 24.

BBC reports: Sudan military and civilians sign deal to end deadly turmoil. Sudan's ruling military council [TMC] and opposition leaders [FFC] have signed a power-sharing accord after all-night talks. It is a "historic moment" for the country, the deputy head of Sudan's ruling military council, Mohamed Hamdan "Hemeti" Dagolo, is quoted as saying by AFP news agency. Sudan has been in turmoil since the military ousted President Omar al-Bashir in April. Protesters have been demanding the military hand power to civilians. Those protests turned deadly in a crackdown on 3 June 2019, when at least 128 people were reportedly killed - a figure disputed by the military authorities.

What has been agreed? The two sides have agreed to rotate control of the Sovereign Council [SC] - the top tier of power - for just over three years. That council [SC] will be made of five civilians, five military figures, and an 11th civilian, to be chosen by the 10 members. A military general will be in charge of that council for the first 21 months, then a civilian will lead for the following 18 months, followed by elections. The military has been pushing for immunity from prosecution after the protester deaths, but this is absent from the signed deal. It does, however, promise an investigation into the violence. A second agreement on constitutional issues is expected to be finalized on Friday 19.07.2019 .

How significant is this deal? After months of on-and-off talks, the two sides have finally signed a deal. That is notable in itself. The agreement means that after 30 years of military rule, Sudan is now three years away from a fully civilian administration - in theory. The finer details of the deal and its constitutional elements have not been agreed upon. There is still a "Sovereign Council" [SC] to be appointed to lead the country through its transition. However, some among the protesting masses might feel that they have got the short end of the stick. The very military they challenged - and under whom they suffered pain and death on the streets - remains in power for now and will lead the interim government initially. The generals could possibly secure immunity from prosecution. Justice in the eyes of the protesters will not have been served yet, but their chants for the fall of the regime have ushered in this new phase.

How did this start? The unrest in Sudan can be traced back to December 2018, when then President Bashir's government imposed emergency austerity measures. In April, the president was overthrown by the military after prolonged protests outside the defense ministry in Khartoum, but demonstrators then wanted to ensure authority was swiftly transferred to a civilian administration. They stayed put outside the ministry and, on 3 June 2019, the Rapid Support Forces (RSF), a paramilitary group under the command of the ruling military council (TMC), moved in to disperse them. Dozens were killed and bodies were thrown into the River Nile. BBC Africa Eye has analyzed more than 300 videos shot on that day and footage showed the RSF firing at protesters with live ammunition. After the massacre, tens of thousands of protesters then returned to the streets a few weeks later, which forced the junta to resume talks on a power-sharing government. The RSF leadership has denied responsibility for the killings, blaming rogue elements. The RSF grew out of the Janjaweed militia, which was accused of carrying out a genocide in the Darfur region of western Sudan. Source: BBC.

Derair expresses pleasure for his honoring to mediation. The Ethiopian mediator for negotiations between Transitional Military Council (TMC) and Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC), Mahmoud Derair, has expressed his pleasure for his honoring to mediate in the current decisive stage in the history of the great Sudanese People. In an address he gave following the signing of the political agreement between the TMC and the FFC at Corinthia Hotel in Khartoum, Derair stressed the importance of support to Sudan to combat poverty, the blockade imposed it and to remove its name from the list of countries sponsoring terrorism. Derair assured that [the] Sudanese people deserves this historical day, praising the role of the negotiating Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) and the Armed Forces (TMC) and congratulated the Sudanese people on the signing of the political agreement which he described as a decisive one. Source: Sudan News Agency, SUNA.

New generation will lead the country: Al-Amin: The Leading figure at Forces of Freedom and Change (FCC), Dr. Ibrahim Al-Amin said he was assured that new generation will administer the country by tolerance. He said on Wednesday 17.07.2019 after signing with initial letters the political agreement between FFC and Transitional Military Council (TMC) Wednesday (17.07.201), that the youths have showed high level of responsibility - risen above tribalism and racism along with commission to nationalism. Al-Amin indicated that the Sudanese revolution made big transition, he greeted martyrs and Sudanese woman who became Icon of pride along history by their superiority in all areas and a crown on head of every Sudanese. He added that Sudanese women after the revolution represent Three-fourths of the society. Al-Amin commended efforts of mediators and the Sudanese nationals abroad for supporting the revolution. Source: Sudan Daily.

The next government will work for all Sudanese: Digair. A member of the negotiating delegation for the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC), the chairman of the Sudanese Congress Party, Omer al-Digair, said that the next government will work for all Sudanese without discrimination. In a press statement on Wednesday 17.07.2019 morning, al-Digair pointed out that there are substantial comments on the constitutional document, stressing that they would present their comments on the Constitutional Declaration (CD) and expressed the hope that an agreement would be reached. He explained that the agreement will be accompanied by the constitutional document; which will be discussed next Friday (19.07.2019), noting that it establishes the structures of the transitional period, calling for solidarity to build Sudan in the next phase, and stay away from everything that distinguishes between the Sudanese. He noted the great role played by Sudanese women in bringing about change, and thanked the African and Ethiopian mediators for their efforts in reaching an agreement. Source: Sudan Daily.

United States and Britain welcome signing of political agreement. The spokesperson of the British Government for the Middle East and North Africa, Ms. Alison King, has congratulated in a statement Wednesday 17.07.2019 the Sudanese people on the political agreement between ... [the TMC and FFC]. In her congratulation to the Sudanese people, King said that we are fully aware that there is still much to be done and that was the only the beginning for a people who have defended their demands peacefully. She indicated that this moment deserves to be celebrated as it crowns a lot of efforts and sacrifices, saying that great sacrifices were evident in the tears of the Ethiopian mediator. Meanwhile, the American Charge d’Affaires to Sudan, Steven Koutsis, has called on the Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) to continue the spirit of cooperation to conclude the Constitutional Declaration (CD) next Friday (19.07.2019), congratulating the disputing parties in Sudan on the signing of the political agreement on the formation of structures and institutions of governance in the transitional period. Source: Sudan News Agency, SUNA.

USA welcomes the political accord in Sudan. US Special Envoy to Sudan Donald Booth and the United States Embassy in Khartoum congratulated the Sudanese people on the initial signing of the political agreement on the formation of the structures and institutions of the governance in the transitional period. The U.S. Embassy in Khartoum tweeted in Twitter “Our gratitude goes to the AU and Ethiopian mediators for their instrumental role and perseverance”, “We encourage TMC and FFC to continue the same spirit of cooperation to conclude a constitutional decree during the Friday [19.07.2019] talks. (2/2)” [the embassy] added. Source: Sudan Daily.

EU expresses its readiness to assist Sudan. European Union has expressed its readiness to assist Sudan on its path towards peace and stability, as soon as a civilian-led transitional government is in place. In statement on the political agreement in Sudan, EU spokesperson for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy said that this is a further positive step, praising the continued efforts of the African Union/Ethiopian mediation played an important role in this achievement. “It is important that both sides now continue their discussions on outstanding issues and promptly conclude a constitutional agreement as foreseen” the statement added. Source: Sudan Daily.

Foreign Ministry thanks circles that contributed to peace agreement. In a statement issued Wednesday 17.07.2019, the Foreign Ministry [of Sudan] expressed its thanks, appreciation and gratitude to all the parties that contributed to the political agreement signed on Wednesday 17.07.2019 between the Military Council [TMC] and the Forces of .. Freedom and .. [Change, (FFC)]. The Foreign Ministry thanked the African Union and the Arab Republic of Egypt, the member states in the African Union, the African Union Ethiopia and their envoys Professor Mohamed Hassan Ould El-Labat and Ambassador Mahmoud Dreir, whose dedication, patience and diplomatic expertise had an effective impact on the success of the negotiations.

The Foreign Ministry also thanked the Sudan brothers in Saudi Arabia, the Arab Republic of Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, the Arab League [AL is the largest fascist organization in the world today; ed. note.] and its member states, the Organization for Islamic Cooperation (OIC) and its member countries, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) and the Secretary-General of the United Nations, and extended its thanks and appreciation to the Russian Federation, the People's Republic of China, the European Union and its member states, the United States, and to the international friends and partners of Sudan who provided all forms of support and encouragement in the course of the negotiations until they reached the desired results and the goal they all sought.

The Ministry referred to the provisions of Chapter (6) of the Agreement on international support, and renews its call on the international community to support this historic agreement and provide real support for its implementation in fulfillment of the long-awaited benefits and the removal of all obstacles facing the integration of the Sudan into the world economy and maximizing opportunities for international cooperation and initiatives reminding with Sudan's natural, human and economic potential, which is one of the cornerstones of global food security, as one of the pillars of regional peace and stability. The Foreign Ministry pointed out that Sudan looks forward to resume its natural and leading role in the African Union and to enhance its relations with the European Union and the removing of its name from the list of countries sponsoring terrorism, besides its aspiration for coordination of the international efforts for holding a plenary conference for the donors to back up Sudan efforts for supporting peace, realizing development and combating corruption. Source: Sudan News Agency, SUNA.

Sudan’s armed groups reject agreement on transitional political document. The rebel Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF) announced its rejection of the political agreement ... [signed] by the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) and the Transitional Military Council (TMC), saying that the approach adopted was flawed and unacceptable and would complicate the national process. The TMC and the FFC on Wednesday 17.07.2019 morning ... [agreed to] the text of the political agreement which describes the three organs of the transitional authority and details the power-sharing during the transitional period. However, the deal failed to resolve the difference on the legislative council as the TMC continues to claim the need to review the majority of 67% agreed to [by] the opposition groups, [i.e.] members of the FFC, last May (2019). However, SRF spokesman Mohamed Zakaria Farajalla told Sudan Tribune on Wednesday 17.07.2019 that the Front was surprised by the initialization of the agreement between the two parties while it was engaged in consultations/meetings with a delegation of their allies in the FFC in the Ethiopian capital on ways to achieve peace.

He said that the agreement reached by the FFC political and armed groups in Addis Ababa provides to include the SRF vision in the political and constitutional agreements with the Military Council [TMC]. "It is not understandable that the deliberations of Addis Ababa meeting are in their final stage and the FFC negotiating team inside the country concludes the agreement without waiting for the outcome of Addis meetings to be included in the agreement." "This approach is flawed and unacceptable and will complicate the national process. As the Sudanese Revolutionary Front, we affirm that we are not a party to the agreement and we have the right to take what we see as appropriate steps to achieve peace and democratic transition."

The Addis meetings between a delegation of the FFC and the SRF agreed on a draft declaration of principles to achieve peace during the transitional period to be integrated within the political and constitutional agreements to be reached with the Transitional Military Council [TMC]. Zakaria stressed that the meetings in Addis Ababa are still ongoing but will seek to understand the reasons that led the FFC political groups to strike the deal with the military council without waiting for the outcome of the meetings of Addis Ababa. He pointed out that the SRF calls for postponing the formation of the institutions of the transitional period until the signing of a peace agreement, after which the phenomenon of armed movements will disappear, in order to avoid repeating the mistakes of the past in dealing with the armed movements after each popular revolution.

Since last April [2019], in a series of meeting[s] held in Abu Dhabi, the armed groups proposed to distinguish between the pre-transitional period and the transitional period which will start within six months after the conclusion of peace agreement with the armed groups in Darfur, the Blue Nile and South Kordofan states. The SRF spokesperson said there is still a chance to overcome this crisis if what will be reached between them and their allies in the FFC is included in the political agreement before to strike a deal on the constitutional declaration. "If this issue is not addressed, the SRF will have several options to deal with issues of war and peace, including direct negotiations with the military council [TMC]," he asserted. Zakaria said that the discussion on the draft submitted by the SRF to the FFC delegation on the achievement of peace is still continuing.

Agar: The agreement does not represent the whole FFC. For his part, the head of the SPLM-N - Malik Agar, said that those who signed the agreement, do not represent all the Forces for Freedom and Change [FFC]. "The agreement ignored important issues being discussed in Addis Ababa, foremost of which is the issue of peace.". "There has been a deep dialogue between active leaders in the forces of freedom and change [FFC]and the Sudanese Revolutionary Front [SRF]," he said in a statement extended to Sudan Tribune. "The agreement [between TMC and FFC] damaged this dialogue and what is said about peace does not exceed public relations." "We are part of the FFC, and this agreement will lead to different positions . We are studying the issue with our comrades in the SRF before to take a position that we will announce today," he said before the joint press statement.

In a statement read at a joint press conference in Addis Ababa, the SRF groups voiced their reservations about the form and content of the ... political declaration [agreed upon by the TMC and FFC], including the negotiation method. The FFC negotiators have ignored important parties and issues and focused on power-sharing and ignored important issues, "forgetting that the SRF could enter into a power-sharing deal if it wanted a long time ago," further said the statement. Gibril Ibrahim, head of the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), said in a tweet posted in the morning ... that "the initialization of a political agreement between the military junta [TMC] and some FFC forces [is] a disregard for the consultations taking place in Addis Ababa." "The Sudanese Revolutionary Front is not a party to this agreement." Source: Sudan Tribune.

Sudan’s political agreement fails to resolve difference over transitional parliament. The political agreement reached Wednesday 17.07.2019 between the Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) did not resolve the difference over the legislative council composition as it provides that every party sticks to its initial position. In accordance with the agreement, the FFC reiterated its position that 67% of the legislative council would be dedicated to the FFC groups as agreed last May [2019]; while the TMC reaffirmed its demand to review this percentage. After the bloody raid on the pro-democracy sit-in on 3 June 2019, the head of the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) and TMC deputy head Mohamed Hamdan Daglo ’Hemetti’ claimed that the opposition FFC plans to disband his militia through a law to be adopted by the transitional parliament. Since, he said the 67% of the opposition coalition should be reviewed, pointing to the need to include the groups that were allied to the former regime, the traditional and tribal leaders. However, the text of the political agreement on the transitional institutions provides that the legislative council should be formed within 90 days from the establishment of the Sovereign Council. Also, to avoid a constitutional vacuum, the agreement says that the legislative power will be exercised by the Sovereign Council [SC] and the government in a joint meeting. Further, it says that any legislative bill lodged at the Sovereign Council will become a law if it is not voted by the joint meeting within 15 days. The TMC and FFC are expected to resume meetings on Friday 19.07.2019 to discuss the constitutional declaration which defines the attributions and powers of the three organs of the transitional authority established by the political agreement. Source: Sudan Tribune.

18.07.2019. Sudan. Anarchists against counter-revolutionary activity by the military and marxists etc. within FFC and SPA. Troika statement on the deal. Hemedti and the fate of Sudan. The "March of Millions". Some rebels reject the deal.

After the deal: The anarchists again warn against counter-revolutionary activity by the military and others, especially opportunistic elements, marxists included, within the FFC and SPA. Troika statement on the deal. Hemedti and the fate of Sudan. Report from the "March of Millions". In the morning: The anarchists again call on the people of Sudan to join the "March of Millions..." on Thursday 18.07.2019, i.e. today! [Some] Sudan rebels reject junta-opposition political agreement.

After the power-sharing deal: The anarchists again warn against counter-revolutionary activity by the military and others, especially opportunistic elements - marxists included - within the FFC and SPA.

In this article we 1. repeat the anarchists' position in the pro-democracy revolutionary movement in Sudan (from the 15.07.2019-report on Sudan, in IJA 1 (41), i.e. in this document); 2. take a closer look at the counter-revolutionary struggle and activity mentioned under point 1.; and 3. take a closer look at counter-revolutionary forces and their activities, a) the military i.e. TMC, RSF and Hemedti, b) corrupt and opportunistic marxists etc. in FFC and SPA - there are many opportunistic marxists, including the Sudanese Communist Party (SPC), and similar elements, within the FFC and SPA, especially among the leaders, and c) foreign enemies of the revolution, mainly Saudi-Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Egypt.

1. The anarchists' position in the pro-democracy revolutionary movement in Sudan (from the 15.07.2019-report on Sudan, in IJA 1 (41), i..e. in this document).

The anarchists, The International Workers of the World (IWW), the AI/IFA, the AISC and The Anarchist Confederation of Africa (ACA) condemn 1. the totalitarian, ultra-authoritarian Transitional Military Council (TMC), and especially the deputy head of TMC, gen. Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo a.k.a. Hemedti, and his notorious Rapid Support Forces (RSF) paramilitary unit, and 2. the killing of several dozens of protesters; beating, torture and rape of many and attacks on hospitals - mainly by RSF, and demand 3. a full and fair investigation into the recent violence as well as social justice in the matter - taking into account a) the RSF is criminal and kills, and b) send Hemedti, the ruler of RSF, to prison for life - after a fair trial.

Furthermore 4. the anarchists a) are a part of the pro-democracy movement, b) mainly support the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) and mean c) the pro-democracy movement, i.e. mainly the anarchists, the FFC and a sufficient majority of the people together (the 'people' here defined as the grassroots, i.e. seen as a class in contrast to the superiors in rank and/or income) - during the transition period (15.07.2019 planned to be 3 years + 3 months) probably can change the embryo-revolution in Sudan to a real revolution, and d) achieve some form of democracy via good economic-political work and a struggle without ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined - the opposite of anarchy, which includes optimal order and law), and e) perhaps later on and in the long run even achieve real democracy, i.e. anarchy; and also mean f) the power-sharing agreement between TMC and FFC (when all details are agreed upon) is probably a welcome and small first step in the direction of democracy and away from totalitarian, ultra-authoritarian rule in Sudan, and g) also mean the pro-democracy movement can avoid an abortion of the embryo-revolution by stopping possible counter-revolutionary attacks from TMC, RSF and Hemedti or other reactionary domestic forces, or foreign enemies of the revolution, mainly Saudi-Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Egypt.

The Anarchist Confederation of Africa (ACA) declares: Fellows in Africa - and especially Sudan! Contact ACA and join the ACA-network today! Be a networkmember/subscriber to the IJ@/ACA/ AI/IFA! Click here to subscribe! It is free! Feel free to forward this information to your own network, and/or link up the Website of ACA at your blog or homepage. Join in the struggle for and towards anarchy and anarchism, i.e. for socialism and autonomy; against economical plutarchy - that is capitalism; and against statism -- in the African countries, including Sudan - and world wide... Of course a struggle without ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined), the opposite of anarchist, anarchy and anarchism!!! A struggle for anarchy and anarchism as opposed to all forms of marxism (state-socialism), liberalism and fascism, including populism. A struggle for a movement of the societal, i.e. economical and political/administrative, systems -- in libertarian direction, less authoritarian degree... ACA always works and demonstrates with dignity, uses real matter of fact arguments and adds weight behind via direct actions, mass actions, and via elections. More information? Contact ACA - Click here!

2. A closer look at the counter-revolutionary struggle and activity mentioned under point 1.

In point 4. of the content in "the anarchists' position in the pro-democracy revolutionary movement in Sudan" presented above, it is mentioned that "the anarchists ... also mean the pro-democracy movement can avoid an abortion of the embryo-revolution by stopping possible counter-revolutionary attacks from TMC, RSF and Hemedti or other reactionary domestic forces, or foreign enemies of the revolution, mainly Saudi-Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Egypt."

By "other reactionary [counter-revolutionary] domestic forces" we mean i) opportunistic and corrupt “Sheikhs” from the old guard of political parties that are members of FFC and/or SPA, i.e. corrupt and opportunistic marxists etc. (in FFC and SPA) - there are many opportunistic marxists, including the Sudanese Communist Party (SPC), and similar elements (from other parties, marxists and other) within the FFC and SPA, especially among the leaders, ii) counter-revolutionary military groups outside TMC, RSF and Hemedti, as, say, the newly arrested wannabe coup-makers, iii) other counter-revolutionary political groups, say, old reactionary political parties that are not members of FFC or SPA, iv) ochlarchists (ochlarchy means mob rule broadly defined - the opposite of anarchy, which includes optimal order and law). There may be ochlarchists, i.e. criminal trouble-makers, both within and outside of FFC and SPA. Ochlarchists within FFC and/or SPA must be punished as other criminals, and expulsed from the organizations; v) other reactionary domestic force not mentioned in point i.-iv. In the following we will consentrate on i) when we write about "other reactionary [counter-revolutionary] domestic forces" in point 3. beneath.

3. A closer look at counter-revolutionary forces and their activities, a) the military i.e. TMC, RSF and Hemedti, b) corrupt and opportunistic marxists etc. in FFC and SPA - there are many opportunistic marxists, including the Sudanese Communist Party (SPC), and similar elements, within the FFC and SPA, especially among the leaders, and c) foreign enemies of the revolution, mainly Saudi-Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Egypt.

Don’t believe the nice words of the military. The anarchists (AI/ACA) have warned the people of Sudan, and especially the pro-democracy movement against the military (i.e. TMC, RSF and Hemedti), regarding the fate of the revolution in Sudan (so far only an embryo-revolution, but if not aborted, may be in a few years a real revolution), if they believe in the overly nice words of the military, (and especially nice words from the expert on presenting fake news to the people, Hemedti) and give into them (i.e. the policy and demands of TMC included RSF and Hemedti). Remember what happened in Egypt and how the great Arab-spring-revolution in the country was lost under the leadership of the military. Remember how the military in Egypt came back and took control of the country, putting mainly all of the revolution’s activists in prison. The military junta of Egypt expressed chauvinistic positions and condemned all of the Arab Spring revolutions. Egypt is also an outspoken enemy of the Sudan Spring revolution, and supports TMC, RSF and Hemedti.

The military spreads fear. The anarchists say: Don’t be afraid! We warned the people of Sudan, and especially the pro-democracy movement, of the army’s betrayal. Sorry to say, many among the people of Sudan were angered at this warning, and said that the Sudanese army was different from the Egyptian army, although all of the Arab armies follow the same approach: their weapons are pointed at the people, not the nation’s enemies. And few listened or understood these genuine pieces of advice given by their brethren an sisters in the anarchist movement. Sorry to say, many of the Sudanese people don't not like to take advice. However, they have seen first-hand, by personal experience or on video, the brutality and violence the Sudanese army broadly defined, included TMC and RSF, faced them with and how their fellow countrymen were killed and molested. Several have suggested that the army, included TMC, RSF and Hemedti, deliberately spread and broadcast these videos to strike fear in the hearts of the people, and thus try to weaken the position of the pro-democracy movement. The anarchists declare: Don’t be afraid!

The anarchists again warning of counter-revolutionary attacks from military. Now, the people of Sudan must take the warning from the anarchists seriously. Thus, on the background of the facts mentioned above, the people of Sudan and the pro-democracy movement should now understand that the military, the TMC, RSF and Hemedti, cannot be trusted. The military of Sudan, the TMC, RSF and Hemedti, is a counter-revolutionary force, with a) the aim to have about 100% economic-political power for themselves, and b) give as little as possible influence to the people and the pro-democracy movement! Now, after signing of the power-sharing agreement regarding the Sovereign Council [SC] between the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) and the Transitional Military Council (TMC) on Wednesday 17.07.2019, with the TMC leading the SC first, the anarchists (AI/CA) again warn about betrayal and counter-revolutionary attacks from TMC, RSF and Hemedti. Now, the people of Sudan and especially the pro-democracy movement, must take the warning from the anarchists seriously. As mentioned: the ' people' are here defined as the grassroots, i.e. seen as a class in contrast to the superiors in rank and/or income.

The anarchists warn against corrupt and opportunistic marxists etc. in FFC and SPA. There are many opportunistic marxists, including the Sudanese Communist Party (SPC), and similar elements, within the FFC and SPA, especially among the leaders.The opportunistic elements, marxists and others, have managed to benefit from the non-ideological youth who so far are not affiliated with any movement or party, but have protested and only demanded freedom, dignity and social justice. These opportunistic elements probably made the FFC and SPA to overstep their demands, and later joined forces with the military, in a deal that in many ways favors the military (TMC, RSF and Hemedti), but also will benefit the opportunistic elements within the FFC and SPA. This is not the first time these opportunistic elements ally with the military, as this handful of old rotten political forces, who ruined political life in Sudan and always aspired to rule along with the military, supported all of the past military coups, from Abboud’s coup to Nimeiry’s. Especially these opportunistic forces manipulate in the Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA), who were the icons of the revolution and its fuel since December 2018. Most of its (SPA’s) members are non-political youth who have no political experience. Therefore, these corrupt “Sheikhs”, i.e. opportunistic marxists including the Sudanese Communist Party (SPC), and similar elements, managed to infiltrate them and ride with the revolution, via the SPA and FFC, which will also be part of the powerful Sovereign Council, SC. These corrupt “Sheikhs”, i.e. opportunistic marxists including the Sudanese Communist Party (SPC), and similar elements, are mainly only interested in their own power and richness, and are counter-revolutionary forces, and give a damn in the interests of the people of Sudan. There is an urgent need for a cleaning up operation, i.e. to expulse all the opportunistic marxists, including from the Sudanese Communist Party (SPC), and similar elements including all the old rotten political forces, and especially their leaders, from the FFC and SPA.

PS. The Sudanese Communist Party (SCP) a.k.a. Communist Party of Sudan (CPS), is a small, rather old style (state-)communist marxist-leninist party. The CPS is one of the oldest parties in Sudan, and was formally founded in 1946, ten years before Sudan's independence. In 1969 the CPS supported the coup d'état by leftist army officers led by Colonel Jafaar Nimeri. In the parliamentary elections of 1986 it won three seats. The opportunistic CPS has infiltrated the FFC/SPA with authoritarian marxist, state-socialist ideology, is democratic in the name only, and is thus counter-revolutionary and should be expulsed. The ultra-authoritarian members of the CPS must not sit in the Sovereign Council.

Power-play by foreign counter-revolutionary forces. Sudanese protesters set up barricades on roads leading to the army headquarters after the army began attacking demonstrators in Khartoum, Sudan on 3 June 2019. It is no wonder that they made this agreement with the military (TMC, RSF and Hemedti), which probably nipped the revolution in the bud on orders from the UAE, a.k.a. the home of the counter-revolutions. Many of the conspiracies against the Arab Spring revolutions were plotted in the UAE. We must not forget that a number of figures, including Mariam, daughter of Sadiq Al-Mahdi, leader of the Umma Party in Sudan, visited the UAE, while an Emirati delegation visited Sudan at the height of the (embryo-) revolution and met with members of the military council (TMC). The delegation members included Mohammed Dahlan, security adviser to the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi. The delegation also included Taha Osman, former head of Omar Al-Bashir’s office, whose attempt to execute a coup against Al-Bashir on the orders of the UAE and Saudi Arabia in 2017 was exposed. He fled to Riyadh and the Saudi crown prince granted him Saudi citizenship. Moreover, head of the military council (TMC), Abdel Fattah Al-Burhan, visited the UAE last month, while the deputy head of the military council and commander of the Rapid Support Forces, Hemedti, travelled to Saudi Arabia and probably received instructions to try to end the revolution in Sudan. News agencies described him as the UAE’s man in Sudan, as he is closely associated with the Emirati leadership and is supported and backed by Abu Dhabi and Riyadh. Members of the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) are participating in the war on Yemen, alongside the Saudi and Emirati alliance. Lately the UAE has decided to withdraw some forces from the war in Yemen, but RSF is still in the country. Also lately, the UAE rushed to sign a deal with him (Hemedti) to supply Haftar’s militias in Libya with armed fighters from the armed militias in Sudan (RSF), as the UAE supplies Haftar’s militias with funds, weapons and political support.

The struggle against the counter-revolutionary forces must be a priority and start today. The military, TMC, RSF and Hemedti, benefited from the Egyptian experience and took lessons from the Egyptian military coup. Now, the protestors in Sudan must learn a lesson from the aborted Egyptian embryo-revolution. The struggle against the counter-revolutionary forces, i.e. all of them, must be a priority and start today. Here the anarchists will take part, and especially be on the alert in connection with the meeting between TMC and FFC about the Constitutional Declaration, Friday 19.07.2019. If not, the Sudanese Spring may quickly turn into a stormy winter. Sources: AIIS and The Middle East Monitor (MEMO).

Troika statement on the deal. Troika welcomes Sudan’s political deal and hopes to win the confidence of the people. The Troika states Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States welcomed the agreement reached by the Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) on a political declaration that sets out the structure and responsibilities of the Transitional Government. In a statement, the troika expressed the hope that these institutions would gain the trust and support of the Sudanese people, lauding the efforts of the African Union, Ethiopian and Sudanese mediators and all those who contributed to help the parties reach an agreement. And encouraged the parties to conclude the parallel constitutional agreement as soon as possible and the formation of the transitional government led by civilians, which the Sudanese people have demanded courageously and peacefully since December 2018. It also welcomed the parties’ commitment to support an independent investigation into the events of June 3 2019 and other acts of violence, and negotiate to end the internal conflicts in Sudan and to pursue economic, legal and constitutional reforms during a 39-month transitional period. Source: Sudan Daily.

Hemedti and the fate of Sudan: Devils on Horseback leader holds fate of Sudan in his hands. According to Bloomberg, in a report, written by Mohammed Alamin and Okech Francis, a one-time camel trader turned leader of a Sudanese militia known as the “devils on horseback”, now holds the fate of Africa’s third-largest nation in his hands. Known popularly as Hemeti, Mohamed Hamdan dominates the military council (TMC) that overthrew President Omar al-Bashir in April 2019. He also commands the Rapid Support Forces (RSF), a paramilitary group accused of killing more than 100 protesters in June in Sudan’s capital, Khartoum. Swaggering and unaccountable, his fighters have become the most tangible obstacle to Sudan’s escape from three decades of dictatorship. “All roads forward in Sudan now run into the Hemeti problem,” said Alan Boswell, an analyst with the Brussels-based International Crisis Group. “Over time, his power will need to be reined in, yet any action against him at the moment risks civil war.”

The stakes go beyond Sudan, which has been rocked by coups, insurgencies and mass protests since independence in 1956. The battle for its future after the fall of Bashir — an Islamist general and international pariah accused of war crimes — has become another battleground for the biggest power rivalries in the Middle East. Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates have been drawn in, looking to retain influence in the Red Sea nation as their tussles with Iran and Turkey for regional supremacy spread to the Horn of Africa. The oil-rich Gulf nations in April 2019 pledged a combined $3 billion in aid to Sudan, which has been ravaged by decades of economic mismanagement that helped ignite the nationwide unrest in December. The promise of cash has given breathing space to the country’s new rulers [TMC] — mainly Bashir’s old guard — and fueled opposition doubts there’ll be a genuine democratic transition as the elite seeks to defend its privileges.

How Sudan is moving on after brutal leader’s ouster: quick take. Still, negotiations between the council TMC, and the opposition group that led the protests, FFC, may have yielded a breakthrough. A deal signed Wednesday 17.07.2019 would see civilian and military representatives form an 11-seat Sovereign Council with executive responsibilities, and elections would be held after [about] three years. While the global outcry over the Khartoum massacre gave Sudan’s military rulers little choice but to reach a deal, they’ll probably seek to stall its enactment, according to Salah Aldoma, a professor of international relations at Omdurman Islamic University in Khartoum’s twin city. Hemeti’s denials of responsibility for the Khartoum attack have veered from blaming infiltrators in uniform, to vowing to hang any of his fighters who participated.

Feared fighters. Rights groups including Amnesty International say Hemeti’s forces must withdraw from the city. On the streets, one can sense a palpable fear of his fighters, who regularly harass youths deemed sympathetic to the protests. Many residents make sure they’re home by nightfall to avoid any run-ins with the feared security services [or RSF]. The militia (RSF) earlier this week said in a statement it would be “gradually withdrawn from Khartoum in accordance with the security situation,” the state-run SUNA news agency reported. Hemeti’s vertiginous rise saw him deploy his fighters alongside Saudi Arabia and the U.A.E. against Iran-backed Houthi rebels in Yemen. The RSF, a reconstituted version of the brutal counter-insurgency group known as the Janjaweed [militia] he helped organize in the western region of Darfur, is now regarded as Sudan’s most powerful military force [this claim is disputed]. While Sudan’s Gulf backers hope the nation follows the Egyptian path of military rule after the Arab Spring, they’re missing a key difference, said Boswell: “Sudan lacks a cohesive military.”

Ceding influence. The army — and the military council (TMC) — are officially led by Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, a lieutenant-general who helped coordinate Sudan’s contribution to the Yemen campaign. Burhan, though, has ceded influence in public to Hemeti, who regularly addresses rallies aired on state TV. Hemeti’s alleged role in the violence would complicate any designs he might have on the presidency. Much of Sudan’s remaining elite are desperate to improve relations with the U.S., which lifted a two-decade-old sanctions regime in 2017. “Hemeti is looking for some guarantees so he can make a safe exit,” said Aldoma. “His use was only as a military assistant to oust Bashir.” The Darfuri warlord, Hemeti, is also likely to face resistance from the elites from the Nile Valley hundreds of miles to the east who’ve traditionally led the country. While the RSF has helped them tame the protest movement and sideline some of Bashir’s hard-line Islamist supporters, the rest of Sudan’s military council (TMC) could be ready to jettison him at a later date, according to Asiel Alamin, a prominent activist. But in the short-term, any move to check Hemeti’s power risks splitting the [TMC] council, said Harry Verhoeven, author of ‘Water, Civilization and Power in Sudan.’ “It’s a dangerous proposition and very few actors in the army, RSF or other security forces have a realistic vision of political order beyond the next couple of weeks,” he said. Source: Sudan Daily.

In the morning: The anarchists again call on the people of Sudan to join the "March of Millions..." on Thursday 18.07.2019, i.e. today! Later on Thursday: Hundreds march in Sudan to honour 'martyrs' of protests. Police fire tear gas as rallies in Khartoum pay tribute to dozens of demonstrators killed in protests since December 2018. Sudanese police fired tear gas as hundreds of demonstrators marched in capital Khartoum towards a prominent square to honour dozens of people killed in the months-long protest movement that has rocked the northeast African country. The rallies on Thursday 18.07.2019 came a day after protest leaders(FFC) and the army rulers (TMC) inked a power-sharing deal to form a joint civilian-military body tasked with installing a civilian administration - the main demand of the demonstrators. Witnesses said men and women chanting revolutionary slogans and waving Sudanese flags headed towards the Green Yard, a prominent square in Khartoum in response to calls from a key protest group [NB! Many groups called on the Sudanese people to join the "March of Millions ... ", among them also the anarchists AI/ACA]. As they marched, the demonstrators shouted slogans that have been the rallying cries of the uprising that led to the toppling in April of President Omar al-Bashir: "Civilian rule, civilian rule!" and "Freedom, peace, justice!""The rallies are a tribute to those honorable 'martyrs' of the December revolution," the Sudanese Professionals Association, SPA, said in a statement.

Riot police fired tear gas to disperse a rally at a key bus station in downtown Khartoum, witnesses said. "Protesters who were dispersed are trying to mobilize again and continue with the rally. It's like a game of cat and mouse between them," a witness told the AFP news agency from the capital's Jackson bus station. One onlooker said that many who arrived at the Green Square were in tears as they chanted slogans remembering those killed in the protests. The SPA spearheaded the initial campaign that erupted in December 2018 against the government of long-time leader al-Bashir over its decision to triple the price of bread. Those protests swiftly escalated into a nationwide movement that led to the army overthrow of al-Bashir in April 2019. But protesters remained in the streets following al-Bashir's toppling, fearing the generals intended to cling to power or preserve some form of authoritarian rule.

More obstacles. More than 200 people have been killed since December in protest-related violence, according to doctors close to the movement. Tensions between the generals (TMC) and protesters [i.e. the pro-democracy movement] surged after a June 3 raid on a long-standing Khartoum sit-in that led to deaths of more than 100 demonstrators. Thousands protested in Khartoum and other cities over the weekend as part of the "Justice First" marches called by the SPA to mourn the deadly dispersal. The Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the opposition coalition (FFC) have been wrangling for weeks over what form Sudan's transitional government should take after the military deposed al-Bashir on April 11 2019.

On Wednesday 17.07.2019, the protesters (FFC) and generals (TMC) finally agreed to a deal that paves the way for a transitional civilian administration that would govern for just over three years. The talks, however, are set to continue on Friday 19.07.2019 as the two sides push to sort out the remaining issues. Al Jazeera's Hiba Morgan said while the signing of the accord on Wednesday 17.07.2019 was significant, "there are still a lot of obstacles to overcome", referring to the more controversial Constitutional Declaration. "The political document [agreed upon by TMC and FFC on Wednesday 17.07.2019] doesn't mention what roles the Sovereign Council [SC] and the cabinet will have - that will be defined in the Constitutional Declaration, which is going to be the core of the transitional agreement," she said from Addis Ababa in neighboring Ethiopia. Source: Al Jazeera.

[Some] Sudan rebels reject junta-opposition political agreement. The Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF), a coalition of Sudanese armed movements, has declared its categorical rejection of the political agreement signed between the ruling Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) on Wednesday 17.07.2019. Jibril Ibrahim, head of the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), told a joint press conference in the Ethiopian capital of Addis Ababa that the SRF was surprised by the signing of the agreement while they were still meeting with representatives of the FFC and discussing their approach to reach a document. He said that the signing of the agreement “fatally hit the dialogue in Addis”. He pointed out that the political agreement does not include all members of FFC. He asked the parties to seriously consider the reservations and not to sign the Constitutional Declaration until after the meeting of the FFC has concluded. The text should include issues of marginalization, just peace, issues of displaced persons and refugees, and of diversity in the transitional authority, and restructuring of the state and citizenship, and the inclusion of women and youth. The SRF expressed readiness to sit with the parties of the FFC to deal with the challenges ahead. Ibrahim pointed out that the dialogue in Addis Ababa addressed a number of issues, including the formation of an effective leadership body for the FFC.

Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM-MM). The head of the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM-MM), Minni Minawi, said that the agreement went beyond the basic issues and considered it unacceptable and called for stopping what is going on inside until the completion of the document. He said that the SRF had called on its partners in FFC to postpone the signing of the agreement until the completion of the dialogue in Addis and to include its results, but it rejected it. He explained that the agreement, which was signed is not adequate and Sudan will not emerge from the impasse, saying that what is required is not the transfer of power from military to civilian, but the removal of the causes and root causes of the crisis that led to genocide and the secession of the South Sudan. Minawi explained that the parties to the agreement deliberately ignored these issues. The SRF is still dealing with its partners with an open mind, calling for leadership to be wise, he said.

Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North. Malik Agar, leader of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North faction in Blue Nile said that the political agreement disregarded the ongoing dialogue between FFC and the SRF, did not address the issues of war and peace and the civil war that has besieged Sudan for decades. Yesterday (Wednesday 17.07.2019), Malik Agar told a joint news conference of the SRF members in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa “The current situation is the last chance for Sudan to be and not be”. He said that the circulated statement about the SRF's demands in mind had previously led to the secession of South Sudan and warned of the dire consequences of ignoring peace issues.

Sudan Call. Osman Hussein, head of the displaced and refugees’ delegation to the Sudan Call (a coalition of the SRF, opposition parties and civil society organizations) said that the agreement ignored the issues of displaced people and holding accountable the perpetrators of rape, murder and occupation of land. He stressed at the press conference that they will not be part of an agreement that does not guarantee the return of refugees and displaced people to their places of origin. He pointed to the arrest of displaced people from the beginning of the revolution, the latest of which included 28 people in Gireida, he demanded their release.

Communist Party of Sudan. In Khartoum, the Communist Party of Sudan announced its rejection of the political agreement signed between the military junta TMC and the FFC on Wednesday 17.07.2019 morning. The party said in a statement that the agreement ignored the decisions of the African Union supported by the European Union, the Troika, the US Congress and the United Nations, which called for full civilian leadership of the transitional government and building on what has previously been agreed upon. The statement pointed out that the agreement was also devoted to the dominance of the military coup junta (TMC) over all the details of the state in contradiction to the principle of building on what was done in the previous agreement. In addition, the agreement also ignored the dismantling of the regime, the accountability of its corrupt figures, the recovery of the looted property and property of the people, as well as the dissolution of all militias outside the armed forces in accordance with security arrangements in the interim period.

Darfur Bar Association. In Khartoum, the Darfur Bar Association played down the political agreement signed on Wednesday morning between the military junta TMC and the FFC. Yesterday (Wednesday 17.07.2019), the Darfur lawyers said in a statement that the agreement signed has the fundamental defects will be announced by the Association later. The association [declared] that it is “deeply concerned about leaving the fate of the country to some of the affiliates of the Sudanese Professional Association [SPA]” and others of the FFC who lack proper understanding of the fateful issues of the homeland. Source: Radio Dabanga.

19.07.2019. Sudan. Friday's negotiation-meeting between TMC and FFC about the Constitutional Declaration is postponed. Sudanese Journalists Network criticizes junta-opposition deal. 246 protesters killed since December 2018.

Friday talks with Sudan army rulers postponed: protest leaders. Sudanese protest leaders [from FFC] told AFP [that the] Friday 19.07.2019 talks with the country's army rulers [TMC] have been postponed, just days after the two sides signed a power sharing deal. "The talks have been postponed," said prominent protest leader Omar al-Digeir. "We need more internal consultation to reach a united vision," he added, with no new date set for negotiations to resume. Another protest leader, Siddig Youssef, also confirmed the talks had been suspended. On Wednesday, the two sides [agreed upon] … a "Political Declaration" that aims to form a joint civilian-military ruling body, which in turn would install an overall transitional civilian administration for a period of 39 months. At Friday's talks the two sides were to finalize a "Constitutional Declaration" [CD] to thrash out crucial remaining issues. They include 1. whether to give immunity to generals accused of being behind violence against protesters (the anarchists are against such immunity), 2. the formation of a transitional democracy. Here TMC has proposed presidential democracy, some within the FFC have suggested a parliament similar to the British, and the anarchists have proposed federalism and direct democracy, as in the Swiss Confederation; and 3. the role of paramilitaries. See earlier reports about the anarchist point of view.

However, protest leaders [from FFC] said that the three rebel groups that are part of the umbrella protest movement [FFC] had expressed reservations over Wednesday's deal. "I'm going to Addis Ababa to meet the Sudan Revolutionary Front [SRF] to get their opinion," Digeir said, referring to the rebel groups currently based in Ethiopia. "They are not happy with" the agreement signed with army leaders [TMC]", Youssef said. The groups [SRF] had been fighting government forces for years in the war-torn regions of Darfur, Blue Nile and South Kordofan. Sources close to negotiations told AFP that these groups have demanded that the "Constitutional Declaration" specify that peace negotiations in the three conflict zones would be a top priority for the new transitional government. Once such a peace deal is finalized, sources said the rebel groups want their representatives to be part of the transitional government. They also called for the extradition from Sudan of those accused by the Hague-based International Criminal Court of a litany of crimes, including ousted leader Omar al-Bashir.

The anarchists (AI/ACA) declared: “The Forces of Freedom and Change, FFC, has made too many concessions already! We are asking them not to make any more concessions in the negotiations with the TMC about the "Constitutional Declaration"! Sources: France 24 and AIIS.

Sudanese Journalists Network criticizes junta-opposition deal. The Sudanese Journalists Network criticized the political agreement signed by the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) and the junta (TMC) on Wednesday 17.07.2019 morning. The network said in a statement on Thursday 18.07.2019 that “this agreement is based on a misleading partnership that produces a distorted entity. It was set-up by the military head of the former security committee of Al Bashir to dispel all the dreams of our people without creating a new reality”. Power of the junta (TMC): According to The Sudanese Journalists Network the signed agreement “strengthens the power of the junta TMC, that is made up of members of the security committee of the Al Bashir regime and that tries to usurp power by stealing the efforts, sweat and blood of the revolution”. Disregards many principles: The journalists’ statement pointed out that the agreement disregards many principles that were announced as steps that had to be taken before the political process could really begin: dismantling the National Intelligence and Security Service (NISS), dissolving the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF), holding key figures of the Al Bashir regime accountable, and dismantling the economic institutions of the former regime. Source: Sudan Daily.

Sudan: 246 protesters killed since December 2018. Some 246 protesters have been killed in unrest hitting Sudan since April 2018, the country’s doctors’ body said in a press release on Friday 19.07.2019, Anadolu Agency reports. The statement by the Central Committee of Sudanese Doctors said more than 1,300 protesters were injured during the same period. It said: “246 people were killed since the eruption of protests in December 2018, around 127 of whom were massacred on the day when the sit-in around the headquarters of National Army was dispersed.” The statement further confirmed that a six-month strike by the country’s doctors was lifted as of July 18 2019. Local newspapers on Friday 19.07.2019 said talks between the opposition alliance Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) and the Transitional Military Council (TMC) were to continue after having been postponed for several days. [However] Khartoum-based daily Alsudani quoted sources confirming a second round of talks between the two sides had been postponed for several days in order to hold consultations on the details of the country’s transition to a civil government. Source: The Middle East Monitor (MEMO).

20.07.2019. What Sudan’s embryo-revolution revealed about traditions. Bilateral consultations between FFC and the SRF begin in Addis Ababa. NCF: Political accord gives all power to junta. Soaring transport prices, bread shortages. And more...

What Sudan’s revolution revealed about traditions. “The people are now conscious” is the reoccurring reply from protesters, here in Sudan, when asked about their reasons for demonstrating. “We will not retire,” they stress. This statement rings true at the heart of the revolution, a sentiment shared by most taking part in the demonstrations. This revolution has not only shed light on some of the previous government’s corrupt enterprises and practices, but also how certain social norms allowed for these practices to continue unchecked. Though, respectively, it is probably more accurate to say that the people were always aware of these oppressive institutions and practices, through the protests they have found an avenue to express their discontent freely, without authoritarian crackdown. Some of these draconian practices come in the form of manufacturing famine and scarcity of necessities such as wheat by purchasing from suppliers and halting sales, driving people to pursue unorthodox means of purchase in order to inflate prices. Then, the product is slowly reintroduced with the new price. In order for a plan on this scale to be carried out successfully, there needs to be many conspiring and benefitting.

Here is where social norms became an indispensable tool for the previous regime. There are virtues and vices to a collectivist society such as Sudan; companionship versus tribalism, the previous regime exploited the latter. Through years of nepotism and bribery, the previous government was able to place spineless ministers and corrupt officials in strategic places, colluding with the regime and its Orwellian secret services in order to fill their coffers. With most recruiting and hiring done through blind favouritism, the consequences were economic disparity between ethnicities. Perhaps two overt examples of this can be seen in the fact that occupants of the more affluent neighbourhoods in Sudan share similar backgrounds. The second, and more worrying consequence, is the establishment of an ethno-classist political class. Today in Sudan, whether it’s opposition member or military leaders, most share similar ethnic backgrounds, creating a lack of representation and disenfranchisement of certain ethnicities. Beyond nepotism, this revolution revealed certain traditions that proved to be to the detriment of society – namely, sexism. Women are routinely targeted by harassment; even competing with their male counterparts for jobs, women have to exert more effort. These oppressive measures are part of customs to ensure there not be “estrangement” from norms. They are also reinforced with laws, such as those laws that seek to control what women wear.

Perhaps, tradition was not able to keep up with modernity, in the sense that historically the norm may have been that women were expected to act and wear certain things while the arrival of globalization brought a completely new possibility of being. The guards of old saw this as challenging their way of life, and so to maintain tradition they sought to contain these possibilities within the boundaries of appropriate societal ethics: vilifying and tabooing dress codes and attitudes, giving rise to misogyny. “If they dress this way, they have trespassed beyond appropriateness and deserve to be harassed,” were a few words said to me by a member of the Sudanese secret service.

Furthermore, the guards saw fit to cement these ideas using pseudo-religious and pseudo-spiritual propaganda, perpetuated by “religion merchants”, insisting on distorted religious views that try to maintain the status quo. This gave way to apathy towards not just tradition but also religion; mosques became emptier and family detachment rose. This apathy quickly turned in indignation during the revolution, perimeters were crossed more frequently and courageously questioned. This is not to overlook the positive effect collectivism has on society. Collectivism gave us free healthcare through altruistic action, it gave us solidarity and vicarious suffering that moved the people to revolt, and much more. However, there needs to be a progressive, inclusive frame of reference in which the old decorum can draw upon and mend its attitude to suit the new generation, and new Sudan. Source: Mohamed Khougali at The Middle East Monitor (MEMO).

Bilateral consultations between FFC and the SRF begin in Addis Ababa. The bilateral consultations between the Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF) and the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) to reach an agreement on the political and constitutional declaration of the transitional period began in Addis Ababa on Saturday 20.07.2019 and in the presence of the African mediator. The Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF) has made observations on the political agreement signed by the Forces of Freedom and Change, FFC, and the military council TMC, noting that the agreement does not have their attention in that they were not a party to it. The African mediator, Mohamed El Hassan Ould Labbat, arrived this morning to Addis Ababa, where he addressed the joint meeting which included the leaders of the Revolutionary Front (SFR) as well as the leaders of the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC).

The African mediator urged the parties to reach an agreement leading to the peace process in Sudan. The head of the Sudanese Congress Party, Omer al-Digair, and the head of the Umma Party Sadiq al-Mahdi, arrived early Friday 19.07.2019 to Addis Ababa, to join the negotiations. The Revolutionary Front (SFR) said in a statement that the arrival of al-Digair and Mahdi to the meetings is a sign of the keenness of all to reach a solution to the sticking points and to find a new approach to address the complexities of a full civil transition. Source: Sudan Daily.

Sudan [political party] opposition: Political accord gives all power to junta. The members of the National Consensus Forces (NCF, a coalition of opposition [political] parties) have expressed strong reservations to the contents of the political agreement between the ruling Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the opposition Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC). [As mentioned] the FFC have postponed negotiations about the Constitutional Declaration. In response to negative reactions from the armed movements (SRF) and the NCF on the power-sharing deal signed by the TMC and FFC on June 17, the FFC negotiating team cancelled their meeting with the military junta TMC on Friday 19.07.2019. “We need more internal consultation to reach a united vision,” Omar El Degeir, chairman of the activist Sudan Congress Party [member of FFC] explained AFP news agency. After the FFC and the junta TMC agreed on [some] power-sharing issues on the armed movements (SRF) on July 5 2019, Sudanese rebel movements called for a meeting of all signatories of the Declaration of Freedom and Change in Addis Ababa, “to consolidate the unity of the Sudanese opposition and agree on issues of peace and democratic change in the country”. While delegations of the opposition forces [FFC, SRF and NCF) were discussing the contents of the political agreement in the Ethiopian capital, the FFC negotiation team signed the deal [with TMC] in Khartoum.

Failing deal: The NCF said in a statement on Thursday 18.07.2019 that the agreement “goes towards granting of power to the military junta [TMC] and does not meet the demands of the revolution, including a civilian-led government”. The political deal also fails to provide for an international commission of inquiry into crimes committed throughout President Al Bashir’s rule, the NCF stated. According to the opposition coalition, the FFC negotiating team was not authorized to sign. It [the NCF] did not elaborate on this point however. It further criticized the signing of the political agreement separately from the constitutional document, and emphasized the importance to take in the views of the signatories of the FFC and the armed movements (SRF]. They urge the FFC to solve imbalances in the agreement through the Constitutional Declaration text. The Sudanese people should be able to comment on the draft text of the Constitutional Declaration before it will be signed.

Sovereign Council (SC): [As mentioned] according to the text of the agreement, a Sovereign Council (SC), consisting of 11 members, will rule the country. Five members will be from the military, five will be civilians. The 11th member will be civilian, to be selected by both the TMC and the FFC. The presidency will rotate. The coming 21 months, the president will be from the military, followed by a civilian for 18 months. Elections will be held after a transitional period of three years and three months. The cabinet will exist of technocrats, to be selected by the FFC. An agreement has also been reached on a “national investigation” into the violent break-up of the Khartoum sit-in on June 3 2019.

Reactions: The various stakeholders have reacted differently to the agreement between the military junta [TMC] and the FFC (formerly known as the Alliance for Freedom and Change (AFC)). While the international community and the National Umma Party welcomed the deal brokered by the African Union (AU) and Ethiopian mediators, the armed movements (SRF), displaced people in Darfur, and Sudanese journalists [Sudanese Journalists Network, SJN] rejected the contents of the document. According to Minni Minawi, head of the Sudan Liberation Movement and chairman of the Sudan Revolutionary Front [SRF] coalition of armed movements, the agreement “does not reflect the country's pressing issues nor respects its sacrifices”. It is “just a contract concluded with the security forces [of TMC] to hit the [armed] movements [SRF] and oppress the regions in the margin through a so-called civilian legitimacy”, he said. “What is required is not the transfer of power from military to civilian, but the removal of the causes and root causes of the crisis that led to genocide and the secession of the South Sudan.” Source: Radio Dabanga.

FFC armed groups [SRF] reiterate demand to include their positions in Sudan’s document. The Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF) has insisted that its proposals and vision about peace and democratic transition should be included in the "political agreement" with the military junta, not the "constitutional declaration", saying that the latter are legal texts derived from the political agreement. Talks between the political and armed components of the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) continue in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa, to discuss how to achieve peace and address the effects of the war in Darfur and the Two Areas during the transitional period. SRF spokesman Mohamed Zakaria Farajalla told Sudan Tribune on Saturday 20.07.2019 that the Revolutionary Front [SRF] asks for a delay in the formation of the transitional authority until a peace deal was reached. He added that adding SRF positions on the political agreement in the "constitutional declaration" is not enough and is not legally consistent. The "political agreement" is the source and should include all issues. While the "constitutional declaration" is a decree carrying legal provisions that reflect what is stated in the "political agreement," he stressed.

An FFC leading official, Nur al-Din Salah al-Din, told the "Sudan Tribune" Thursday 18.07.2019 that the understandings that would be reached with their allied armed groups [SRF] will be included in the constitutional declaration adding it is the most important and contain the details of the full agreement. The SRF spokesman went further to propose the formation of a caretaker government for the time being until a peace agreement was reached and included in the political agreement. Later on, this agreement can be included in the issues to be discussed by the Constitutional Conference, he said. "We see that a period of two months is enough to reach an agreement on peace after what everyone will participate in shaping the Sudanese state and the institutions of the transitional government. So, no party will participate in it while others remain outside, repeating negative experiences that occurred in earlier periods of the history of the Sudanese state." He stressed that the parties in Addis Ababa are now consulting on how to agree on a new approach to include all issues in the political agreement to be agreed upon by all parties and to become the start to the establishment of a healthy democratic regime. African Union Special Envoy to Sudan, Mohamed El Hacen Lebatt, arrived in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa on Friday 19.07.2019 and held a meeting with the FFC political and armed groups. Source: Sudan Tribune.

Soaring transport prices, bread shortages in Darfur and northern Sudan. West and Central Darfur and the Northern States are experiencing acute fuel and bread shortages. A number of residents of Zalingei, capital of Central Darfur, complained to Radio Dabanga about a new rise of transportation tariffs because of the fuel crisis. A listener in the West Darfur capital of El Geneina reported that the price of a barrel of diesel in the town jumped to SDG 8,000 ($ 178*). Dongola and neighboring villages in Northern State are experiencing a severe bread and gasoline crisis, and a continuous interruption of the electrical current. Mohamed El Hasan told this station from Dongola that people are queueing in front of bakeries for hours long, while the vehicles line up in front of fuel stations to get petrol. He pointed to continuous power outages, explaining that they can make use of electricity for only four hours a day. Earlier this week, people in the more remote parts of Sudan complained about a new wave of price rises. Source: Radio Dabanga.

Ansaral-Sunna: We welcome any inclusive agreement. Head of Political Committee of [the] Ansaral-Sunna Group, Mohamed Abuzaid, underscored the group’s welcome to any deal which includes the all and does [not] exclude anyone, saying exclusion brings sores. He said in a statement to SUNA that Sudan has long suffered from rifts since independence, and entrenchment and bilateralism have become chronic diseases that stalled the country’s progress and dragged it backward. He indicated to differences between Sufis, Ansaral-Sunna, Islamic movement and communists which, he said, lagged progress and development of the country. Abuzaid called for overcoming differences in the coming stage to achieve peaceful co-existence, political stability and comprehensive peace, stressing on holistic solution of which excludes nobody. He said exclusion yields plotting as it happened in history of our country, sometimes left-wing excluded and Islamists excluded for a while, and that led to military coups. Abuzaid called on forces and political parties to resort to wisdom and discard sores and revenge and to learn reconciliation and forgive[nes]s from the great persons such [as] Mandela, Gandhi and others for sake of the homeland and the citizens. Source: Sudan News Agency (SUNA).

Why Sudanese should cautiously celebrate the political declaration? As Sudanese have every reason to celebrate the political declaration signed by the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) and Transitional Military Council (TMC), one may have some reservations and concerns, but with the optimism of a better future for Sudan.

The Reasons to celebrate. The Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA), which is part of the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC), stated after the conclusion of a power-sharing agreement on 5th of July between the Transitional Military Council (TMC) and FFC that “Today, our revolution has won and our victory shines". There is no doubt that the 5th July power-sharing deal and the subsequent political declaration both deserved to be celebrated by the Sudanese people, particularly the protesters who have shown exceptional determination and resilience. The persistent defiance and nationwide mass demonstration on June 30 after the deadly crackdown of protesters by security forces on June 3 was a defining moment that contributed to the conclusion of the 5th July agreement. This demonstration has not only challenged the political power calculus of the TMC of crushing the uprising but it has shown that FFC enjoys very broad support from all spectrums of Sudanese society and exceptional capacity to mobilize Sudanese people to sustain the uprising. The agreement and political declaration have unlocked the impasse on abolishing the TMC and replacing it with the sovereign council with the civilian majority. With this Agreement and political declaration, all transitional institutions will have not only civilians as a majority but they will be headed by civilians except sovereign council that will be headed by the military during the first half of transitional period.

One important provision of this Agreement is the establishment of an independent national investigation committee for the atrocities committed since the eruption of the uprising in December 2018 including the killing of innocent protesters on 3rd of June. Another important aspect of this Agreement and political declaration is the affirmation of the equality of citizens before the law regardless of race, religion and sex with a clear focus on equal rights for women. These commitments are meant to undo the laws enacted by the regime of Bashir to segregate citizens based on religion and sex. In other words, the political declaration has made the TMC succumb to the will and demand of the Sudanese people to establish civilian transitional institutions. The management of the transition period requires both legitimacy and conducive security environment that can be only provided by FFC and TMC respectively. With this agreement innocent lives would be spared, the sacrifices and agony sustained by protesters since the beginning of the uprising would be ameliorated and daily life would return to normalcy. One would say the agreement is a win-win and the Sudanese have the right to celebrate.

The reasons to be cautious. As there are reasons to celebrate, there are equally reasons to be cautious about the power-sharing agreement and political declaration. The TMC has been changing its position over power-sharing agreement; particularly the transitional legislative assembly, and this raises serious concerns. This makes some analysts doubt whether TMC is genuine in transferring powers to the civilians. Besides this concern of the real intention of the TMC, there are other concerns including some unresolved transitional issues, the possibility of new power calculus and dynamics that may emerge to undermine the Agreement and the uphill task of meeting the expectations of the Sudanese people and addressing the structural problems that triggered the uprising.

The key unresolved issue is the formation of the transitional legislative assembly and any delay in its formation will paralyze the functioning of the transitional government. Having sovereign council and technocratic government to act jointly as the legislative body, instead of the transitional parliament as provided for in the political declaration, may undermine the separation of powers and checks and balances mechanisms. The FFC and TMC may need to consider allocating sufficient seats of the transitional parliament to the armed groups as well as reasonable representation in the sovereign council.

The real game-changer during the transitional period will be Gen. Mohamed Hamdan Dagolo ‘Hemedti’. Recognizing his political, security and economic might, the Agreement did not temper with his forces, the Rapid Support Forces (RSF), that have been recognized as part of the national army. Alex De Waal describes Hemedti as the dominant player in Sudan’s political marketplace as he has economic power through gold; smuggling; and the funds earned from the troop deployment in Yemen, coercive power through his RSF and a shrewd politician who moves fast and seizes opportunities. With these sources of power, Hemedti may rebel and wage a new coup during the transition; particularly if the findings of the national investigation committee implicated him in the atrocities committed on 3rd of June.

Although the FFC has undoubtedly shown unified leadership in dealing with the TMC, its signature of the political declaration without getting the consent of armed groups and other parties tainted the unity among its members. Such unity may be fragile during the transition period as the narrow political interests and political competition will prevail over the national interest of putting Sudan on the democratic path. If FFC fails to form a national coalition umbrella organization of its members to contest the general elections, the remnants of the regime of Bashir may regroup and rebrand themselves under new political party that may win the general elections since they have resources, external support, political system and experience that are in short supply with the FFC. If the general elections bring to power again the political Islamists, Sudan will again be put on another trajectory of agony, repression and suffering.

The transitional government will hardly mobilize locally the necessary resources to meet the basic needs and expectations of the people of Sudan. The regime of Bashir left a ramshackle economy after its leaders squandered and looted the national resources as revealed by enormous evidence of the unprecedented massive corruption during the 30 years of misrule by the political Islamists. The gold resource that is now the main foreign exchange earner is monopolized and smuggled by armed militias including RSF of Hemedti. The agriculture that used to be the mainstay of the Sudanese economy and provided employment for the overwhelming majority of rural Sudan has been neglected to the level that it can barely sustain rural livelihoods. The limited proceeds from the oil sector and fees on the oil export of South Sudan will hardly pay the wage bill of civil servants. Yet, people have high expectations from their civilian transitional government and may be disappointed if their technocratic government fails to deliver the basic services and live up to their expectations. The resolution of conflicts in the peripheral regions of Sudan such as Darfur, Southern Kordofan, Blue Nile, Eastern Sudan and Nubi in Northern Sudan has not been resolved by the 5th July peace deal and political declaration. Any delay in resolving these conflicts and participation of the armed groups in the transitional government will pose a real threat to the transitional government. There is also the daunting task of transforming and professionalizing the security sector that has been politicized by the political Islamists during their 30 years of misrule of Sudan. Without overhauling the Sudanese security sector, the transitional period would be witnessing recurrent coups that may threaten the lifespan of the civilian transitional government.

The reasons for optimism. The real safeguard to the survival of the implementation of the 5th July Agreement and political declaration is the unwavering determination of the people of Sudan to put an end to the 30 years of Islamic regime by establishing a civilian transitional government. Although there might be temptations for the military to forge coups, the Sudanese people will be vigilant to quell any military takeover. Another reason for optimism is that if the civilian technocratic transitional government is provided with necessary resources and conducive political environment, it may deliver not only the basic services but it will lay a solid foundation for putting Sudan on the path of stability and sustainable and inclusive economic growth. As the IGAD and AU have mediated the power-sharing agreement, political declaration and constitutional declaration with support from the international community, these organizations will provide the necessary guarantees. Importantly, if the technocratic transitional government comes up with a reasonable plan for the recovery of the Sudanese economy, the Gulf countries, some Islamic Countries, European Union, China, and Troika will be willing to support and finance such plan. Last but not least Sudan has the opportunity to genuinely address the grievances of the peripheries and to embrace diversity as a virtue and to move away from the exclusive Arabo-Islamic identity-centric that threatens its territorial integrity. Paradoxically, Hemedti seems to be opportunistically championing the agenda of the periphery and he is likely to entertain the demands of the armed groups in the power-sharing agreement. Source: Luka Biong Deng Kuol from Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS) at US National Defense University, Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) and University of Juba, comments at Sudan Tribune.

21.07.2019. African mediator calls on Sudan’s opposition groups to reach compromise on peace. The talks on the Constitutional Declaration (CD) are expected to resume in Khartoum on Tuesday 23.07.2019 or Thursday 25.07.2019.

African mediator calls on Sudan’s opposition groups to reach compromise on peace. The African mediator, Mohamed El Hacen Labbet, Saturday 20.07.2019 called on the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) leaders, to reach understandings on way to achieve peace in Sudan, so that the talks on the Constitutional Document can resume. Labett arrived in Addis Ababa on Friday 19.07.2019 to meet the leaders of FFC political and armed groups who are holding consultations meeting in the Ethiopian capital. In a joint statement extended to Sudan Tribune on Saturday 20.07.2019, SRF spokesmen Osama Saeed and Mohamed Zakaria said that the mediator “urged to reach an agreement paving the way to the achievement of the peace process of in the country.”

The statement considered the arrival of more FFC officials and the AU envoy to the Addis Ababa meetings as proof of the keenness of all the opposition forces to reach a solution to the outstanding points and to find a new approach that addresses the complexities of achieving a full civil transition. The head of Sudan’s opposition Congress Party, Omer al-Digair, arrived Friday 19.07.2019 in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa to consult with the armed movements (SRF) to reach understandings on achieving peace in the country. The forces of the Declaration for Freedom and Change (FFC) earlier requested postponement of the negotiating session with the military junta (TMC), which was scheduled for Friday 19.07.2019 evening in Khartoum, to further consultation between its different factions. The talks [between TMC and FFC] on the Constitutional Declaration (CD) are expected to resume in Khartoum on Tuesday 23.07.2019 or Thursday 25.07.2019 as the mediators and the FFC hope to persuade the armed groups [SRF ] to change their mind before. Source: Sudan Daily.

The political deal will lead to differences in the future: PCP. The leading figure in the Popular Congress Party (PCP), Bashir Adam Rahma, stressed that the political agreement between the military junta [TMC] and the “forces of freedom and change” [FFC] will lead to differences in the future and will affect the political stability of the country. The differences either lead to early elections or 100% military rule “In both cases, it will have negative effects on political stability, if it is not agreed upon,” Rahma told “Assayha” newspaper on Sunday 21.07.2019. He called on all the political forces, freedom and change, the national forces, the Revolutionary Front and the armed movements to sit and think in order to reach a safe exit, and called on the military junta to be neutral entity and not to negotiate with one side. Rahma considered the Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF) as the biggest threat to the political agreement, especially as it announced that it would hold separate talks with the “military junta” [TMC], which would turn the table over the negotiators at a time when the economic situation was described as bad. He said: ” Those who think that Sudan’s problems were solved, are just idiots because these problems need very long time”. Source: Sudan Daily.

Al-Burhan receives delegation of Democratic Unionist Party. Chairman of the Transitional Military Council (TMC), Lt. Gen. Abdul-Fattah Al-Burhan, received at the Republican Palace Sunday evening a delegation of the Democratic Unionist Party, headed by Ishraqa Sayed Mahmoud. In a press statement, Ishraqa said that the meeting as part of the political consultations on the current situation and the vision of the Democratic Unionist Front on the recently-signed political agreement and the negotiation on the Constitutional Document. She expressed the front’s view that the negotiation on the proposed constitutional document shall be inclusive for all the political forces toward guaranteeing national consensus, especially that the Constitutional Document will include issues of the interim constitutions for administering the country. She stressed that the coming council of ministers [cabinet] shall be composed of independent technocrats. Ishraqa has quoted the TMC Chairman as assuring them that the coming stage will not witness exclusion of any political forces. She added that the Democratic Unionist Front has handed the TMC Chairman its vision on all issues of governance. Source: Sudan Daily. [DUP a.k.a. DUF, has commitment to the principles of tolerant Islam; ed.note.]

Dagalo receives delegation of prisoners of war of armed movements. Deputy Chairman of the Transitional Military Council (TMC), Lt.Gen. Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo [a.k.a. Hemedti], Sunday 21.09.2019 received at his office in the Republican Palace a delegation of prisoners of war of the armed movements who were released lately. The former Chairman of the Transitional Council of Sudan Liberation Movement, Nimer Mohamed Abdul-Rahman, stated on behalf of the released prisoners of war that the meeting discussed the current political situation. He indicated that Dagalo has affirmed the TMC readiness to work for boosting peace in the country and guaranteeing the participation of the political forces and armed movements in the coming period for realizing justice and reconciliations at the war-affected areas. Nimer has praised the support of Lt. Gen. Dagalo to the prisoners of war of the armed movements. Source: Sudan News Agency, SUNA.

Ethiopia reconsiders deportation of Sudan’s [JEM] opposition leader from Addis Ababa. Ethiopian authorities Sunday 21.07.2019 reconsidered the deportation of Gibril Ibrahim, the leader of Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) from Addis Ababa after forcing him out of the hotel where he participates in Sudanese opposition meetings and conducted him to the airport. Sudanese political and armed opposition groups are holding consultation meetings in Addis Ababa where they discuss a number of issues related to the transition in Sudan, with the participation of African Union and Ethiopian mediators who joined them recently. However, on Sunday morning Ethiopian security agents informed Ibrahim that he and his delegation are persona non grata and should leave the country immediately. Infuriated by the decision, the opposition groups stopped their meetings and protested the move to the African Union and the Ethiopian government, as many said they should go elsewhere to pursue their meetings and others went to the airport to show their solidarity with the deportees.

Several opposition sources told Sudan Tribune that the Chairperson of the African Union Commission, Moussa Faki, intervened and asked the Ethiopian authorities to stop the deportation. A spokesman for the Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF), Mohamed Zakaria Farajulla, who is also a JEM member told Sudan Tribune that Ethiopian security agents arrived Sunday morning to the hotel where the Sudanese delegations are hosted and meeting and asked the JEM delegation to leave the hotel after being notified that they are unwelcomed persons in Ethiopia. He explained that the Ethiopian authorities had asked JEM delegation to pack their bags and travel to the destination they want. After what, they were transferred to Addis Ababa airport and stayed for about an hour. "Once again, the security forces came to the immigration office at the airport where JEM delegation was waiting and informed them that a decision was issued by the highest authorities to cancel their deportation and they are free to remain in Ethiopia. Following what they were transferred back to the hotel of the Sudanese delegations." Unconfirmed reports say that the deportation was caused by the participation of JEM leader on Saturday 20.07.2019 evening in a dinner organized by the Qatari embassy in Addis Ababa, but the SRF spokesman refused to comment on this information. "I cannot provide any explanation for what the Ethiopian authorities have done, but the parties in Addis Ababa are currently meeting to consider this matter to take a unified position and issue a statement in this regard," he said. Source: Sudan Tribune.

22.07.2019. The political agreement did not incorporate the armed [rebel] movements’ vision. Sharp differences between SRF and FFC. Soldier tortured to death. Six villagers – including children – killed by RSF. Protestors arrested in South Darfur.

The political agreement did not incorporate the armed [rebel] movements’ vision: Nahar. Leading figure at the Sudan Renaissance Coalition and political secretary of Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), Nahar Osman Nahar said the political agreement reached between the Transitional Military Council (TMC) and Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) did not include the armed [rebel] movements’ vision. He added in a statement to SUNA that the ongoing Addis Ababa talks would narrow the differences of views even inside the FFC components, calling the talks as step in the right direction. He stated that this step should be followed by further steps of consultations with all political forces, saying “this is the future of the country, and not of a specific entity”. Nahar said the mobilization [that] made change in Sudan was a cumulative [process] in which all political and civil forces took part [anarchists included], disclosing that it is immorally to … attribute [this] to [a] specific circle. He said the FFC has no right to guide the will of Sudanese people and the political class as a whole. Sources: SUNA and Sudan Daily.

Sharp differences between SRF and FFC. The differences between the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) in Sudan and the Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF) have escalated during the negotiations hosted by the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa on the transfer of power to civilians in Sudan. Sources told “Sky News Arabia” that the dispute between the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC), and the Revolutionary Front (SRF), confined to the structure of the Forces of Freedom and Change and the question of postponement or formation of the transitional government, while the Forces of Freedom (FFC) said that FFC’s structure is horizontal, and is supported by the agreement with the Revolutionary Front (SRF). A source in the forces of the Declaration of Freedom and Change said that the Revolutionary Front presented new proposals, in which it called for … seats in the Sovereign Council and parliament, as well as giving preference to forming the government in the states of Darfur and the regions of Blue Nile and South Kordofan. The source said that while the Revolutionary Front (SRF), although part of the block Sudan Call, they negotiate unilaterally and want to reverse what was agreed in the Political Declaration with the Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the mixing of papers. The source, who asked not to be named, added that the negotiations also [have] been hampered with the SRF’s rejection to the 6-month period for the peace process, and its demand to extend the period. The source pointed out that the negotiations seem to be deadlocked because of intransigent positions of the Revolutionary Front (SRF). Sources: Sky News Arabic and Sudan Daily.

FFC nominate “Shengray” to the Sovereign Council. Sources revealed that the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) nominated Alameen Ali Shengray to be a member in the Sovereign Council representing eastern Sudan, among a number of candidates, including the teacher Jafar Khader and others. According to (Aljareeda), sources explained that Shengray is acceptable in eastern Sudan, and has a political history in the armed struggle in the east within the National Democratic Rally. Source: Sudan Daily.

Soldier tortured to death in South Kordofan. One of seven soldiers, who were arrested and taken to Dilling garrison in South Kordofan, has died after alleged torture. The soldiers were arrested in connection with the disappearance of a machinegun in El Dabkar two weeks ago. They were reportedly subjected to brutal torture by military intelligence officers, which caused the death of Ahmed Sharafeldin on Saturday 20.07.2019. Relatives of the deceased said that their son’s dead body appeared to show the effects of fire on various body parts. The other six accused are still being held in prison in Dilling. Source: Radio Dabanga.

Six villagers – including children – killed in North Darfur attack. A paramilitary group wearing uniforms of the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) main government militia, riding camels and horses, opened fire on the residents of Kabra village, eight kilometres west of Khazan Tunjor of Tawila in North Darfur on Saturday at around 6 pm. Six villagers were killed and seven wounded. Witnesses and relatives of the victims told Radio Dabanga that two of the villagers killed were young children. Four of the wounded are in serious conditions and were taken to Tawila Hospital. The witnesses said that the militiamen claimed that the villagers stole camels that were passing the village. The villagers denied this has happened. The dead are Mohamed Adam (8), Ibrahim Mohamed (9), Yousef Yahya (35), Yousef Saleh (39), Adam Mousa (45), and Khatir Suleiman (66). Kassab camp: Another attack took place in Kassab camp for displaced people north of Kutum in North Darfur. El Hadi Hussein was seriously injured by armed herders on Saturday while he was at his farm at Kulu village. Witnesses told Dabanga radio that the gunmen beat him with rifle butts. He had to be taken to Kutum Hospital. The witnesses pointed out that the gunmen also prevented the residents Marougi, Arbaraik, Hashab, and Tangara from tilling their land during the season. Source: Radio Dabanga.

Protestors arrested in South Darfur. The Darfur Bar Association condemned the arrest of six people from Katila in South Darfur for organizing a protest in front of the locality building. The protestors demanded the removal of the leaders of the former regime in the locality. The six protestors have been taken to the state capital of Nyala. The Darfur Bar Association said in a statement that the security committee in South Darfur is still trying to stop protestors from expressing themselves and continues to arbitrarily arrest people. The association announced that it will provide legal aid to those affected by violations of the security committee of the regime in South Darfur and that it will expose the practices of the committee. Two weeks ago, a group of 16 lawyers affiliated with the Darfur Bar Association (DBA) demanded Sudan’s National Human Rights Commission to intervene immediately in the case of 28 people who were detained in Gireida in South Darfur without being charged in June. Source: Radio Dabanga.

23.07.2019. Hundreds of Sudan students rally for killed protesters. Two opposition parties reject calls for quotas to Sudan’s armed [rebel] groups. Sudan protesters group says Addis Ababa meetings discuss peace not jobs.

Hundreds of Sudan students rally for killed protesters. Hundreds of Sudanese university students chanting "civilian rule, civilian rule" rallied in downtown Khartoum on Tuesday 23.07.2019 seeking justice for fellow pupils killed in months of political unrest. The rally follows a power sharing deal signed last week between protest leaders and army rulers, but negotiations have yet to address accountability for hundreds killed since demonstrations first erupted in December. Tuesday's protest was called by the Sudanese Professionals Association, the group that initially spearheaded the campaign against the now ousted ruler Omar al-Bashir. "Blood for blood, we don't want compensations," chanted the students, many holding photographs of comrades killed in seven months of protest while others waved Sudanese flags. Riot police deployed in the area but did not clash with protesters.

"We are in the streets because we want those responsible for the sit-in massacre to be held accountable," said student Malaz Eizzeddine. She was referring to a June 3 2019 crackdown on a protest camp in the capital Khartoum, in which dozens of demonstrators were killed and hundreds wounded. Ismail al-Taj, one of the protest leaders, addressed the students before the rally dispersed. "You're the soul of the revolution. We are loyal to you and we are loyal to the martyrs," he said as protesters chanted revolutionary slogans. Doctors close to the protest movement say that 246 people have been killed nationwide in protest-related violence, while Sudanese officials have given a lower death toll. Although protest leaders (FFC) and the generals (TMC) who took over following Bashir's ouster have inked a power sharing deal, three rebel groups backing the demonstrators have expressed reservations about the agreement. Talks are currently underway in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa between protest leaders and the rebel groups, who have said the July 17 deal is "unacceptable". They insist the accord must make peace negotiations for Sudan's war zones a priority, as well as address the needs of those affected by the conflicts. The accord signed earlier this month aims to set up a joint civilian-military ruling body that would then establish an overall civilian administration, the main demand of demonstrators. More talks between the generals (TMC) and protest leaders (FFC) to thrash out some pending issues have been suspended since the rebel groups raised their concerns. No date has been fixed yet for resuming the talks mediated by African Union and Ethiopian diplomats. Source: France 24.

Two opposition parties reject calls for quotas to Sudan’s armed [rebel] groups. The National Umma Party (NUP) and Sudanese Congress Party (SCoP) voiced their support for a technocrat government during the transitional period saying no room for the allocation of ministerial positions to the opposition [militant] forces. The statements of the two opposition parties come as the armed groups, members of the Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF) request to have 35% of the positions in the three organs of the transitional authority. In statements to Sky News Arabia Monday, al Mahdi who is also the leader of the Sudan Call alliance, that includes three armed groups, said that there is a need to achieve a comprehensive and just peace in the country, underscoring that it is a priority for the transitional period. Further, he stressed there is no room for quotas to the opposition groups in the transitional authority. “The members of the Sovereign Council (collective transitional presidency), the government and the governors of states must be technocrats,” he said. SPLM-N Agar Deputy Chairman Yasir Aman told Al-Haddath TV on Sunday 21.07.2019 that Addis Ababa consultations meetings agreed on a document including 11 points to be added to the Constitutional Declaration. “The only remaining point that we have not agreed on is how to create transitional bodies to include peace issues with the broad participation of the armed groups, which are part of the Forces for Freedom and change (FFC),” he added.

In a separate audio statement released late on Monday 22.07.2019 evening, Arman was keen to point that he and his group have no intention to take part in the transitional institutions. The Sudanese Congress Party (SCoP), for its part, issued a statement on Monday 22.07.2019, saying that they appreciate the proposal made by some forces to appoint the party’s chairman Omer al-Digair as the head of the transitional government. However, the SCoP distanced itself from calls for quotas for the opposition groups. “We call to reject any form of party quotas that divert the revolution from its trajectory and turn it into a race on the chairs,” the party stressed. SCoP sources told Sudan Tribune under the cover of anonymity that al-Digair will resign immediately from his position as the head of the party in case the opposition FFC picks him as the prime minister. The sources added that his chairmanship of the party will end within a few months and he would not be re-elected as provided in the constitution of the party. Source: Sudan Daily.

Sudan protesters group says Addis Ababa meetings discuss peace not jobs. The Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA); spearhead of protests that toppled al-Bashir regime in Sudan, said that its participation in consultations meetings in Addis Ababa with the arms groups is aimed at arranging a comprehensive peace process during the transitional period, stressing that it does not intend to discuss allocation of ministerial posts. In a press statement on Monday 22.07.2019, the SPA said that the consultations also aim to include the demands of peace and stability in the next constitutional declaration, as change must carry the wishes of peace and aspirations of the sons of the whole nation. "In such a way, we are working with our comrades in the armed groups to link documents of democratic change and peaceful transition towards a well-established and sustainable democracy," said the SPA. Since last week, the political and armed groups of the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) have been holding meetings in Addis Ababa but have made little progress. Three armed movements members of the coalition, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) led by Gibril Ibrahim, the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) led by Minni Arko Minnawi and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) led by Malik Agar participated in the consultations.

The three groups rejected the political agreement between the military junta (TMC) and the FFC saying it does "not addressed the issues of the revolution" and "ignored important parties and issues." The SPA said that the consultations with the movements "do not aim to discuss quotas or the allocation of posts", stressing that the transitional government should be formed by "patriotic and qualified people." "Peace during the era of the former regime was a commodity sold and bought, and a cheap political auction, won by those who give up more or sell cheaper." Reports from Addis Ababa say that the armed movements are posing preconditions to join the political agreement with the Transitional Military Council, including granting them seats in the Sovereign Council and allocating them 35% of the seats in the transitional government. Activists posted messages in the social media denouncing the position of the armed groups, demanding to abandon the allocation of ministerial positions to rebel groups, a policy practiced by the former regime. The FFC political groups say the restricted transitional government will be formed by independent technocrats and indicated they would only participate in the transitional parliament. Source: Sudan Tribune.

24.07.2019. The signing of the Constitutional Declaration would perhaps be on Sunday 28.07.2019. Armed Forces announces aborting of coup attempt.

The signing of the Constitutional Declaration would [perhaps] be on Sunday 28.07.2019. Sources told “Sky News Arabia”, on Wednesday 24.07.2019, that the Constitutional Declaration in Sudan will be signed, on Sunday 28.07.2019. The sources pointed out that an agreement was reached by giving two seats in the Sovereign Council to the Revolutionary Front (SRF). Sources added that the Sovereign Council will be formed and the prime minister will be appointed following the signing of the Constitutional Declaration. The recent political agreement between the Transitional Military Council (TMC) of Sudan and the Freedom and Change Declaration stated on giving FFC the right to appoint the Prime Minister and members of the Transitional Government to manage the transitional period, which is expected to extend to 3 years and 3 months. The Constitutional Declaration defines the powers of the 11-member Sovereign Council, five of whom are appointed by the military council (TMC), five from the forces of freedom and change (FFC), and an additional civilian person with a military background appointed by consensus between the parties. Source: Sudan Daily.

AU: TMC and FFC to resume negotiations on Saturday 27.07.2019. The African Union (AU) Representative in Sudan has underlined that the negotiations between the Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) will be resumeds next Saturday (27.07.2019) in Khartoum to study the Constitutional Document and to prepare for completing the political agreement's arrangements. A statement issued Wednesday 24.07.2019 by the AU Representative in Khartoum said that the two sides will continue negotiations to study the Constitutional Document and prepare for completion of the Political Agreement's arrangements. The AU official stated that the negotiations are aimed for realizing the goals of the Sudanese revolution. Source: Sudan News Agency, SUNA.

JEM’s leader justifies accepting the invitation of the Qatari Embassy. Sudan’s Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) leader Gibril Ibrahim said that the regionally and internationally recognized peace platform on Darfur is the Doha Peace Agreement signed in July 2011 and there is no decision [that] has been made yet to change the agreement or to set a new platform for peace in Darfur. Jibril said in an exclusive interview with Al-Jazeera that the most important points being negotiated are the adoption of a statuary body to draw policies and take basic decisions within the coalition of the forces of freedom and change (FFC) and to ensure that the opinions of all FFC’s members are taken into consideration. He also pointed out that it was agreed on the formation of a central body and a central authority whose powers will be represented satisfactorily, with the formation of an advisory council and an executive body to carry out daily administrative work, because the forces of freedom and change (FFC) will represent the governing coalition of Sudan in the transitional period. He stressed that the Revolutionary Front (SRF) was absent from the decision-making mechanism and negotiations with the military council (TMC), but now is being re-represented satisfactorily, noting that the political agreement, which was initialed last week ignored important issues, such as peace and the marginalized areas and vulnerable groups in society. About the invitation of the Qatari embassy, Gibril Ibrahim said: “We are a completely independent movement. There is no one in the world who dictates conditions to us. We are not a party that can change its positions because of dinner. Our positions are firm, Our relationship with Doha is formal. “We are not hostile to anyone or take positions against any party, we are working to find a suitable platform for the requirements of the people of Sudan and Darfur, and that is all we want.” Sources: Al Jazeera Net and Sudan Daily.

Activists: 'Sudan opposition must stick to January declaration’. On Tuesday 23.07.2019, activists held a protest outside the headquarters of the Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA) headquarters in Khartoum, demanding that the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) abide by the Declaration of Freedom and Change signed in January. In a memorandum delivered yesterday to the SPA, the activists denounced what they called “seeking of power-sharing with the military junta”. The vigil called for transparency in the agreements signed and negotiated with the military junta (TMC) and to disclose the details of the negotiation process through a bulletin, condemning the concealment of information from the Sudanese people and denounced what they called disregarding of the demands of the revolution. Activists insisted on staying on the streets until the demands of the revolution are met. Ismail El Taj, a leading member of the SPA addressed the vigil, stressing their insistence on “achieving retribution for the martyrs no matter how long it may take”. He stressed their keenness to know the fate of the missing, and promised to work for all of them until they meet the demands of the revolution. He said the association council would discuss the memorandum at a meeting to be held today (24.07.2019).

SPA rejects A-G investigation of massacre. The SPA categorically rejected the investigations carried out by the committee formed by the Attorney-General on the massacre of the General Command regardless of its results. El Taj said in a speech to the protest vigil: “The fundamental institutional reform of the current judicial institutions is a prerequisite for fair trials.” He said justice could not be achieved under the current judiciary and procuratorates. He stressed the need to restructure the judiciary and the prosecution by dismissing the head of the judiciary and his deputies and the Attorney General and reform institutions so that the prosecution can investigate with the security forces, the militias, and members of the armed forces. He stressed the need to accelerate the formation of the civilian government, stressing that the head of the judiciary and his deputies are morally and ethically not competent to achieve justice. He pointed to the transfer of the judicial power of all judges from the Khartoum North Court in preparation for the trials of figures of the former regime. Source: Radio Dabanga.

Vigils across Sudan demand to know fate of Khartoum massacre missing. The capital Khartoum and a number of cities in Sudan again witnessed student and professional protest vigils to demand the disclosure of the fate of those missing in the massacre June 3 2019 at the General Command. In Khartoum, the students of Omdurman Islamic University, the University of Science and Technology, the National University, the employees of telecom provider MTN and the Ministry of Social Affairs, held protests in solidarity with the missing and their families. Teachers also held a protest in front of the Ministry of Education in Khartoum.

In Kassala, activists and professionals organized five protest vigils in the public station, the Ministry of Education, the animal abattoir, the educational hospital, and the Court to demand the disclosure of the fate of the missing. The Ministry of Health staff in Singa and the doctors at El Tura Hospital of El Mahas in the Northern State also carried out similar vigils. Activists are circulating names of dozens of missing people in the massacre of the General Command in … June 3 2019 and demanding the authorities to disclose their fate.

On Tuesday 23.07.2019, the alliance of the student movement organized a march that headed from the universities of El Nilein and Sudan to the University of Khartoum in memory of the martyrs of the student movement. The alliance said an army force and Rapid Support Forces (RSF) troops intercepted the march routes towards Khartoum university. Participants in the march chanted slogans demanding punishment of the killers of the martyrs and [an] … independent and transparent investigation. Addressing the march, Ismail El Taj, a leading member of the Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA), stressed the independent and transparent investigation and access to retribution for the martyrs. Meanwhile, university and school students organized a rally on Obaid Khatim Street demanding [a] … civilian authority. Source: Radio Dabanga.

Armed Forces announces aborting of coup attempt. The Armed Forces announced in a statement issued Wednesday 24.07.2019 its detection of coup attempt in which the Chief of the Joint Staff, Lt. Gen. Hashim Abdul-Muttalab, and a number of high ranking officers of the Armed Forces [and] the National Security and Intelligence were involved, besides leading figures of the Islamic Movement and the defunct National Congress. The statement disclosed that the involved persons were detained and subjected to investigation prior to trial. The Armed Forces’ statement pointed out that the objective of the foiled coup attempt is to abort the honorable people’s revolution, return of the defunct National Congress and blocking the proposed solution for establishing a civilian state which is dreamed by the Sudanese people. Source: Sudan Daily.

Authorities arrest Bashir’s former First Vice-President. The military intelligence in Sudan arrested Bashir’s former First Vice-President, Bakri Hassan Saleh as part of arrests campaign for large number of officers and symbols of the former regime because of a coup attempt against the military council (TMC). Today, Wednesday 24.07.2019, the military junta (TMC) arrested high-ranking officers and Islamic leaders from the former regime. Since the overthrowing of al-Bashir’s regime, the military junta has announced that it thwarted several coup attempts following … [its] agreement with the forces of freedom and change (FFC) over power sharing for [about] three years. Sources: Baj News and Sudan Daily.

25.07.2019. Sudan security forces continue to crackdown on media, politicians.

Sudan security forces continue to crackdown on media, politicians. Sudanese security forces have announced today that they are continuing a widespread campaign of arrests throughout the country, particularly on journalists and political leaders. The latest developments in the nationwide crackdown by the military junta that currently rules Sudan include the arrest of the leader of the Islamic Reform Movement Osama Tawfiq this morning, and last night’s arrest of Sadiq Al-Ruzaiqi, the President of the East African Journalists’ Union and Sudanese Journalists’ Syndicate. Amongst the arrests that took place yesterday were those of the Chief of the Sudanese Joint Staff, General Hashim Abdul Muttalib Babakir; the Commander of the Armoured Corps, Major General Nasruddin Abdul Fattah; the Commander of the Central Region, around which the army headquarters is located, Major General Bahruddin Ahmed Bahr; the leader of the National Congress Party Kamal Abdul Latif; Secretary General of the Islamic Movement Zubayr Ahmed Al-Hassan; and former Foreign Minister Ali Ahmed Karti. In a statement the Transitional Military Council (TMC) today said the arrests were conducted because “we accuse some of its leaders of participating in a coup attempt, which does not agree with the movement’s vision of the importance of stability and reconciliation at this stage.”

The crackdown on media and political figures comes after the Sudanese military announced yesterday that it had foiled a “coup attempt” which aimed to stop “the glorious revolution of the people and the return of the former National Congress system to rule and blocking the way to a political solution that aims at establishing the civil state the Sudanese people dream of”. Since December 2018, protests have held in Sudan against the then-President Omar Al-Bashir, who was deposed in April this year by the Sudanese military. The Transitional Military Council was then set up with the promise of installing a civilian government after two years, leading to further protests as demonstrators called for an immediate transition of power to a civil system. The protests were then followed by weeks of atrocities committed by the Sudanese military and its Rapid Support Forces (RSF). A crackdown on protestors, media and opposition continues to be enforced by the military government. Source: The Middle East Monitor (MEMO).

26.07.2019. Sudanese Islamic Movement rejects accusation it participated in coup attempt. Forces of Freedom and Change marches throughout Sudan. Sudan opposition, armed movements reach agreement in Addis Ababa.

Sudanese Islamic Movement rejects accusation it participated in coup attempt. The Sudanese Islamic Movement announced Wednesday 24.07.2019, that it rejects any accusation that they were involved in a coup attempt. A statement issued by the movement said that since the overthrow of President Omar Al-Bashir, it has prioritised the security and stability of the country over any other matters, and has left space to the Military Council (TMC) to lead the country to safety. "However, despite its position, the Islamic Movement has always been blamed for others' shortcomings and mistakes," the statement added. Earlier on Wednesday 24.07.2019, the Sudanese Army announced that it had thwarted a coup attempt involving the Chief of Staff of the Sudanese Joint Staff, General Hashim Abdul Muttalib, a number of army and security officers, the leadership of the Islamic Movement and the former ruling National Congress Party. The statement from the Islamic Movement added that the movement denies any participation or intention to carry out such an operation. It also called on those accusing them to provide evidence to the public. The movement stressed its keenness to stability and security in the country through its firm and permanent convictions. Source: The Middle East Monitor (MEMO).

Forces of Freedom and Change marches throughout Sudan. Tens of thousands of people joined marches throughout Sudan on Thursday 25.07.2019 in solidarity with the survivors of rape, showing commitment to the opposition Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC). The rallies in Khartoum started at various rallying points preannounced by the FFC . During the marches the demonstrators chanted slogans calling on parties and organizations to support the FFC, stressing the need to reject quotas in the division of power in the future, and demanding an independent and transparent investigation into the killing and rape of protesters during the uprising. In Wad Madani and Hasaheisa in El Gezira, Nyala in South Darfur, Kassala, Port Sudan, El Gedaref in eastern Sudan, Kosti, and Rabak in White Nile state, hundreds took part in similar demonstrations, called for by the field action committees of the FFC. The rally of Kassala was launched in front of the locality offices and led to the Republic Square. Several speakers demanded that all parties and organizations that are part of the FFC abide by the Declaration of Freedom and Change and that they reject quotas. They also changed the name Republic Square to Freedom Square. In Nyala in South Darfur, hundreds of demonstrators marched in solidarity with survivors of rape and demanded commitment to the Declaration of Freedom and Change. Hundreds have also staged similar demonstrations in Wad Madani and Hasaheisa in El Gezira state. In Port Sudan and El Gedaref, rallies were organized in districts and on main roads. Source: Sudan Daily.

Sudan opposition, armed movements reach agreement in Addis Ababa. The opposition Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) and the Sudanese Revolutionary Front (SRF), a coalition of armed movements, have reached an agreement in Addis Ababa on the challenges facing Sudan. The FFC and the SRF said in a statement that they agreed at the end of their meetings in the Ethiopian capital to expedite the formation of a transitional civilian authority. The first task of that civilian authority must be to achieve a comprehensive peace agreement. To make such a peace agreement possible urgent preparatory measures must be taken to create a climate conducive to peace, the statement said. According to the statement, the two parties agreed to establish a body led by the FFC for the duration of the transitional period. This body will mobilise the people to reach the objectives of the revolution. It will also formulate a united vision on the Political Agreement and the yet to formulate Constitutional Declaration, which is to be an elaboration of the Political Agreement. When the FFC and Sudan's ruling Transitional Military Council (TMC) signed the Political Agreement on July 17 2019 the SRF rejected it outright.

Peace agreement. The statement said that the FFC aims to open the way for a comprehensive peace agreement with the armed movements immediately after the transition to civilian rule. The statement called on regional and international powers to support the Sudanese people in their efforts to ensure their security and stability, and to be able to live in dignity.

Welcomed. The Sudan Liberation Movement led by Minni Minawi (SLM-MM) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) welcomed the agreement reached in Addis Ababa. Yasir Arman, deputy head of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N), described the agreement as historic and said it would achieve a comprehensive peace, which there has not been in Sudan since 1956. Omar El Degeir, President of the activist Sudanese Congress Party, refused to comment on the state of affairs concerning the negotiations, saying the FFC succeeded in creating an integrated leadership structure and that that leadership structure should speak on behalf of the FFC. However, he did say that the parties negotiating have overcome all obstacles to achieve peace and a civilian authority, so that they could nominate their members of the Sovereign Council and the government. African Union. In Khartoum, the African Union mediator Mohamed Lebatt announced that the negotiations between Sudan's ruling Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the opposition Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) will resume on Saturday 27.07.2019. They will study the Constitutional Document and complete the arrangements related to the Political Agreement. Source: Sudan Daily.

27.07.2019. Khatib al-Ansar accuses “communist party” of conspiring against democracy. Sudan says 87 killed when security forces broke up protest site. Sudan opposition rejects report on protesters' killing.

Khatib al-Ansar accuses “communist party” of conspiring against democracy. Khatib al-Ansar Mosque Adam Ahmed Yusuf, accused the Communist Party, [The Sudanese Communist Party (SCP) a.k.a. Communist Party of Sudan (CPS)] [of] conspiring against democracy, and called on political parties to be responsible. In the Friday sermon yesterday [26.07.2019], at al-Sayed Abdulrahman Mosque, Omdurman, Yusuf called on the political parties to deal with what he called manipulation and appealed to them to agree with the military council [TMC] to form a strong national government in order to protect the country. Yusuf pointed out to those who came before Al-Ingaz government in May 1969, who said they were seeking to conspire against democracy such as the Communist Party. Sources: Akhbar Alsudan and Sudan Daily.

Sudan says 87 killed when security forces broke up protest site. Death toll given by senior investigator appointed by public prosecutor is higher than previous official figures. An investigation found "rogue" military personnel were responsible for killing dozens of Sudanese protesters in the worst violence since the ousting of former president Omar al-Bashir. The violent break up of a protest sit-in site by security forces in Khartoum last month [June 3 2019] left 87 people dead and 168 wounded, a higher death toll than previous official estimates, a chief investigator said. Fath al-Rahman Saeed, head of the investigative committee appointed by the public prosecutor, said on Saturday 27.07.2019 [that] some members of the security forces fired live ammunition at protesters demanding the military cede power. He told a news conference three officers violated orders by moving forces into the sit-in area outside the defence ministry, a focal point for protests that led to Bashir's ouster on April 11 2019. An order was also issued to whip demonstrators, he added. The committee found members of the joint force [mainly RSF] tasked with clearing the Columbia area "exceeded their duties and entered the sit-in square ... and fired heavily and randomly", leading to the killing and wounding of dozens. The health ministry previously put the death toll at 61, while opposition medics said 127 people were killed and 400 wounded in the dispersal. "Some outlaws exploited this gathering and formed another gathering in what is known as the Columbia area, where negative and illegal practices took place," Saeed said. "It became a security threat, forcing the authorities to make necessary arrangements to clear the area."

Crimes against humanity. Ismail al-Taj, an opposition representative, told a news conference the investigative committee "was formed not establish the truth, but to conceal the truth" and he questioned the new death toll. "Reality says that there are closer to 130 martyrs," Taj said, adding the committee relied on health ministry records, which he said were inaccurate. The opposition coalition Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) is currently negotiating with the ruling military council (TMC) to finalize an agreement for a three-year transition to elections. Saeed gave the ranks and initials of officers he said had been charged with crimes against humanity, which is punishable by death or life imprisonment under military law. He did not give their full names. A brigadier general, referred to only as AAM, mobilized a riot force of the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF) on the orders of two senior officers but not members of Sudan's top leadership, and told them to whip protesters, Saeed said. The committee had not uncovered any incidents of rape, although the US-based Physicians for Human Rights cited local medics as saying women had their clothes torn off and were raped, he said. Sudan's military council, which took power after former military officer Bashir was deposed, has previously denied any rape took place. Source: Al Jazeera.

Sudan opposition rejects report on protesters' killing. Sudanese opposition group Professional Association (SPA) has rejected the report of the investigation committee that acquitted the Transitional Military Council (TMC) from involvement in the killing of the protesters during the dispersal of the sit-in in Khartoum on June 3rd, reports Anadolu Agency. SPA spokesman Ismail Altaj told a press conference in Khartoum on Saturday 27.07.2019 that the investigation committee has attempted to acquit the TMC. "This report has shocked the Sudanese people and the regional and international communities and proved that we need to reform the entire system of justice in the country," he said. The investigation committee said 87 people were killed during the dispersal of the sit-in on June 3rd 2019 in the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. The head of the committee, Fath Alrahman Saeed, said that the ruling Transitional Military Council (TMC) hadn't given any orders for the dispersal of the sit-in. Mr. Saeed, however, said that at least nine senior officers had violated the orders given to them by the security committee of the TMC including two major generals from the Rapid Support Forces (RSF). Sudan TMC has formed an investigation committee after the mass killing of the protesters in the violent incident taken place near the army headquarters in Khartoum. Doctors committee close to the opposition said that at least 127 protesters were killed and more than 200 wounded during the incident. Source: The Middle East Monitor (MEMO).

28.07.2019. Sudan protesters reject prosecutor's report into June sit-in raid. Sudan: Military, armed [rebel] groups agree to free detainees. Sudan extends ceasefire with southern rebels. Sudan's pro-democracy movement concludes Constitutional Declaration draft. Sudan talks on remaining power transfer issues resume Tuesday 30.07.2019. Complaints about rapidly rising prices, lack of medicines in Sudan.

Sudan protesters reject prosecutor's report into June sit-in raid. Demonstrators say investigation into camp crackdown 'meaningless' as they demand independent probe. Hundreds of people have rallied in parts of Sudan's capital, Khartoum, to demand an independent investigation into a deadly June raid on a protest camp after a probe blamed its bloody dispersal on "rogue" military personnel. On June 3 2019, gunmen in military fatigues stormed the sit-in outside the military headquarters in Khartoum, shooting and beating pro-democracy protesters who were camped out there for months, initially seeking the removal of President Omar al-Bashir and then demanding that the generals who overthrew him cede power to civilians. More than 100 demonstrators were killed in the raid, according to the protest-aligned Central Committee of Sudanese Doctors, while over 700 others were reported wounded from the attack and subsequent days of violence. Survivors recounted that the security forces, mostly made up of members from the notorious Rapid Support Forces (RSF), led by the deputy head of the ruling Transitional Military Council (TMC), threw bodies into the Nile River near the sit-in. On Saturday, a joint probe by prosecutors and the TMC said that RSF paramilitary forces were involved in the raid along with some members of other security forces. The investigation report said the "rogue" military personnel had acted alone, however.

'Disobeyed orders'. Fath al-Rahman Saeed, the head of the investigative committee appointed by the public prosecutor, told a news conference in Khartoum that three officers violated orders by moving forces into the sit-in area, the focal point for the months-long protests that led to al-Bashir's overthrow on April 11 2019. Saeed said orders had been given to security forces to clear Columbia, an area near the protest camp where alcohol and drugs - both illegal in Sudan - were known to be sold. But, he said, an RSF general had separately ordered a colonel to disperse the sit-in, despite having no such order from further up the chain of command."They led the forces ... inside the sit-in area and ordered them to get down from their vehicles and whip the protesters," Saeed told reporters. He identified the RSF general who allegedly ordered the raid by his initials A.S.A., and the colonel as A.A.M. Saeed said an RSF captain, identified as H.B.A, was involved in clearing Columbia but later took part in dispersing the sit-in. He said another group of security personnel, also involved in clearing Columbia, "disobeyed orders and entered the sit-in area". They "removed barricades, fired tear gas and fired intense and random bullets that led to the killing and wounding of protesters and the burning of tents," Saeed said, adding that a total of eight officers were involved in the raid.

Protesters reject probe. The findings of the probe were rejected by protest leaders and demonstrators, with hundreds of people taking to the streets of Khartoum. "This investigation is meaningless because we know who cracked down on protesters," protester Amam al-Tahir told The Associated Press news agency. Khartoum resident Waleed Samy agreed: "I am one of those who was present during the sit-in break up and I am sure 100 percent that the person who was beating me was from the Rapid Support Forces. There is no one else." "We have no solution other than to go back to the street," he added. The Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA), an umbrella group spearheading the nationwide protests, said it rejected the probe "at the procedural level" itself, adding that the prosecutors had no credibility. "It [the investigation] was commissioned by the military council [TMC], this is challenging its integrity as the military council [TMC] itself is accused in this case," said the group that first launched protests against al-Bashir in December 2018. Demanding an independent probe, the SPA insisted that the accused be identified by their full names, rather than by their initials as mentioned in the prosecutor's report. "The commission has come up with flawed and incomplete statistics for martyrs, victims and wounded," it said. Echoing these sentiments, opposition representative Ismail al-Taj said: "We have rejected from the start the formation of this investigation committee because it has no credibility and we need an independent committee." He added: "As to what happened on the 3rd of June [2019] ... the number of martyrs, the number of wounded and the number of missing persons; the most important thing is to identify the perpetrators of these violations. These are the things the committee has to find." Doctors linked to the protest movement say 127 people were killed during the June 3 2019 raid, but Saeed gave a lower toll on Saturday. He said that 17 people were killed on June 3 [2019], while a total of 87 died between that day and June 10 [2019]. Days after the raid, rights group Amnesty International said that members of "RSF are responsible for ... the ongoing bloody crackdown on protesters in Khartoum since 3 June". The sit-in raid caused the collapse of talks between protest leaders and Sudan's ruling generals, which did not resume until weeks later, after intense mediation by African Union and Ethiopian diplomats. The two sides have now agreed to form a new joint civilian-military ruling body for a transitional period of 39 months. This governing body would then install an overall civilian administration as demanded by demonstrators. Although the generals and protest leaders have signed a power-sharing deal, several issues are still pending, including justice for the demonstrators killed since the first December [2018] protests against al-Bashir. Source: Al Jazeera.

Criminal procedures against accused of sit-In incidents. The investigation and Inquiry committee on the incidents of the breakup of the sit-in of the Army’s General Command in the 3 rd of last June, has recommended opening of criminal proceedings against seven officers, on top of them a major general officer under the articles of crimes against humanity, for their issuing orders to shoot at the demonstrators in the General Command area, and they are facing charges of capital punishment and life imprisonment, and to be included as prime culprits in the reports of killings and causing harm reported to the prosecutors and the police stations. The head of the investigation and Inquiry committee on the breakup of the sit-in of the General Command, Maulana Fathul -Rahman Saeed, noted during the press conference held Saturday 27.07.2019 at the Public Prosecutor’s Office, that the accused persons had violated the orders issued to them to break up the sit-in only in the Area of Columbia, and they had extended the breakup to the sit-in area in a flagrant violation of the orders. He indicated the presence of some masked persons, whom they opened fire on the protesters from the top of structure of the building of Al-Bashir Medical City, whom their identity were unknown, and which led to the deaths of some of the protesters. Maulana Fathul - Rahman Saeed, revealed that the number of the dead persons in the incidents reached 87 of the protestors during the period from 3 to the 6th of last June [2019]; of which 17 of them inside the area of the sit-in, while the number of the injured reached 168 of which 105 of them suffered injuries and various wounds, noting that the wounded persons inside the area of the sit-in reached 63. He denied the existence of any cases of rape during the sit-in according to the police reports, as well as the burning of individuals inside the area, noting that bodies found on the River Nile on at the area of al- ​​Halfaiya area with the traces of bullets have no relation with the sit-in incident. Maulana has pointed out that the Attorney-General has asked the Military Council [TMC] to provide him with the reports of the investigation ordered by him on the incident of the breakup of the sit-in. He added that the investigations will continue to include all those who face evidence that would lead them to be charged with participating in the incidents. Source: Sudanese Media Center.

Sudan: Military, armed [rebel] groups agree to free detainees. Sudan military and armed [rebel] groups have agreed to release political detainees from both sides to bring peace and stability in Sudan, the deputy chairman of Sudan military transitional council (TMC) said Saturday 27.07.2019, Anadolu Agency reports. Speaking to journalists in Juba after meeting with Malik Agar, leader of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North faction in Blue Nile, Gen. Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo said that they also agreed with armed groups to stop war in Sudan, come together as one people and bring stability. He said that they also agreed to open humanitarian corridors to deliver services to areas affected by war in Sudan. "We welcome our brothers who have taken arms against the government of Sudan. Their presence and views are very important to us in Sudan, and we really need them to come back home. It's their home, we really need them for stability," he said. Praising President Salva Kiir's [of South Sudan] move to initiate peace between Sudan rival groups, Dagalo said they are committed to bring peace to Sudan. Malik Agar said that they are agreed on a number of issues about war and peace in Sudan. He said that the three armed groups agreed to cease hostilities and create conductive environment in Sudan. "We have signed several agreements before but they haven't been implemented, but this time I hope everything will go on well," Agar said. Dagalo arrived in Juba on Saturday 27.07.2019, where he is set to meet President Salva Kiir [of South Sudan] and representatives of Sudan rebel groups. General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, known by his nickname Hemeti, is on his first trip to South Sudan since his appointment as deputy head of Sudan's military council following the April ouster of Omar al-Bashir after months of protests. His visit comes after members of Sudan's opposition coalition reached what they call a "political deal" in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Hemeti, who also commands a paramilitary group known as the Rapid Support Forces, told reporters that he was visiting Juba to meet with President Kiir and Sudanese rebel groups. "We have come to Juba to brief the president on the situation in Sudan. Also, we want to meet with our brother Abdel-Aziz al-Hilu and leaders of armed [rebel] movements," Hemeti said. "I hope that we will find solutions as soon as possible," he added. Hemeti is the one at the forefront of peace talks with opposition groups. Source: The Middle East Monitor (MEMO).

Sudan extends ceasefire with southern rebels. Sudanese and South Sudanese officials agreed late on Saturday 27.07.2019 with the leader of an alliance of armed factions operating along their joint border to extend a ceasefire and grant humanitarian access to some areas affected by conflict in Sudan, Reuters reports. Sudan says neighbouring South Sudan has been giving refuge to Malik Agar, one of many rebels in Sudan. The two countries share a long and porous border, and have a history of supporting armed groups on each others' territories after oil-rich SouthSudan became independent in 2011. Sudan and Agar signed a ceasefire on April 17 2019 covering the Blue Nile and South Kordofan regions, a week after Sudanese President Omar al Bashir was overthrown after 30 years of rule. That agreement was due to expire at the end of July 2019. Peace talks will continue as rebel factions from Sudan's Darfur region are expected to arrive in Juba on Sunday 28.07.2019 from Addis Ababa. Saturday's talks were attended by Tut Gatluak, South Sudan's presidential envoy on security; General Mohamed Hamadan Dagalo, deputy chief of Sudan's ruling Transitional Military council; and Agar, head of a loosely affiliated group of armed opposition groups. Sudan faces armed insurrections across the country and protests by citizens enraged by decades of economic mismanagement and habitual human rights abuses by the security forces. Many protesters against Bashir and the military council (TMC) that succeeded him have been killed. Sudan's ruling military council and the Forces for Freedom and Change, (FFC) an umbrella group of Sudanese political and armed factions, agreed a three-year power-sharing deal this month, although many details remain to be resolved. Agar was not part of that deal. This weekend's negotiations in Juba centred on armed [rebel] groups operating in regions that share a border with South Sudan. "The visit by the Transitional Military Council to Juba today has centred on issues of peace negotiations with Sudanese oppositions groups from South Kordofan, Nubia Mountain and Darfur," said Guatlak. Agar, who heads a group known as the SPLM-North, said he wanted to agree a common position with the Forces for Freedom and Change. In the meantime the ceasefire would be extended and aid agencies given access, he said. "We renewed the cessation of hostilities and opening of humanitarian corridors to the areas that are affected. "This (negotiation) process has to be done by the President of South Sudan because he has the leverage over armed groups that are operating in Sudan," Agar said. Source: The Middle East Monitor (MEMO).

TMC and Aggar faction agree on amnesty for detainees. The Transitional Military Council (TMC) and Sudan People's Movement - North Sector (SPLM-N) - Malik Aggar faction - have agreed on a host of issues, top of them were amnesty for all political detainees and dropping the death sentence verdicts against the armed [rebel] movements' leaders as well as opening corridors and lanes for delivery of humanitarian aid to the citizens affected by war at the conflict areas. In a meeting Saturday 27.07.2019 in Juba, capital of South Sudan State, which was chaired by Lt. Gen. Mohamed Hamdan Daglo from the side of the TMC and Malik Aggar from SPLM-N, the two sides affirmed renewal of the ceasefire agreement. Source: Sudan News Agency - SUNA.

Sudan's pro-democracy movement concludes Constitutional Declaration draft. The legal committee of the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) has finalised its comments on the final draft of the Constitutional Declaration. The article on immunity from prosecution for the Sudan Armed Forces and members of the security apparatus has been removed. The document contains notes on 85 articles and items, Mohamed El Hafiz, lawyer and member of the FCC legal committee told the press in Khartoum on Thursday 25.07.2019. The lawyer explained they are opposed to the planned reform of the army and other forces by the military, stipulating that the operation should be led by a civilian authority. The FCC further removed the article granting immunity to all leaders of the Transitional Military Council (TMC) and of the to be established Sovereign Council. "No leader will enjoy immunity of any kind - neither absolute nor procedural," El Hafiz emphasised. He added that the authority of the Sovereign Council should be limited to ceremonial powers only. Until the formation of the Parliament - at a later stage - the Sovereign Council and the Cabinet will be tasked to carry out legislative functions. The FCC legal committee insists on full legislative powers for the Parliament which should, in addition to its task of monitoring the executive and judicial powers, carry out reform as well, by establishing commissions for land, law, and election reforms for instance. According to the committee, the transitional period should immediately begin after the signing of the document. The Constitutional Declaration, that organises constitutional issues during the transitional period, has not been subject to negotiation before. Earlier this month, the FFC rejected the contents of a leaked version developed by the ruling junta.

Political Agreement: [As mentioned] on July 17 2019, the TMC and the FFC signed a Political Agreement that lines out the rule over the country in the coming transitional period of a little more than three years. According to the text of the agreement, the Sovereign Council will consist of 11 members. Five members will be from the military, five will be civilians. The 11th member will be civilian, to be selected by both the TMC and the ... FFC. The presidency will rotate. The coming 21 months, the president will be from the military, followed by a civilian for 18 months. Elections will be held after a transitional period of three years and three months. The cabinet will exist of technocrats, to be selected by the FFC. The formation of the parliament will be discussed in a later stage. While the international community and the National Umma Party welcomed the deal brokered by the African Union and Ethiopian mediators, the armed [rebel] movements, displaced people in Darfur, and Sudanese journalists rejected the contents of the document. Source: Sudan Daily.

The meeting on the Constitutional Document has been postponed: Labbat. The African mediator Mohamed El-Hassan Labbat said that the meeting on the constitutional document that was scheduled yesterday [Saturday 27.07.2019] has been postponed indefinitely. [However] "A new date has been set," Labbat said in a statement to "Alintibaha" newspaper issued Sunday 28.07.2019. Meanwhile, the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) announced that no exact date had been set for resuming negotiations with the military council (TMC) over the constitutional document. Source: Sudan Daily.

Sudan talks on remaining power transfer issues resume Tuesday 30.07.2019. Talks to resolve remaining issues between Sudanese protesters and ruling generals are set to resume Tuesday 30.07.2019, a mediator and protest leader said, as scores demonstrated in Khartoum to demand an impartial probe into a deadly June raid on a sit-in. The two sides have already signed a power-sharing deal that aims to form a joint civilian-military ruling body which in turn would install civilian rule. That is the main demand of a nationwide protest movement that led to the April ouster of longtime leader Omar al-Bashir and has since demanded that the military council [TMC] which took his place cede power to civilians. The decision to resume talks came as police fired tear gas at protesters angered at the findings of a probe into the June 3 2019 raid on a protest camp outside army headquarters. African Union mediator Mohamed El Hacen Lebatt said in a statement Sunday 28.07.2019 that the protest leaders and generals had been invited for "final talks on the Constitutional Declaration". Prominent protest leader Babiker Faisal also confirmed Tuesday's talks in Khartoum between the two sides, who on July 17 signed the initial power-sharing deal. The second agreement will cover issues including the powers of the joint civilian-military ruling body, the deployment of security forces and immunity for generals over protest-related violence, Faisal said."I expect that we will reach an agreement on the Constitutional Declaration on Tuesday [30.07.2019] because the pending differences are not big," Faisal told AFP. Lebatt said a technical committee representing the two sides would meet first on Monday [29.07.2019] for preliminary talks. The July 17 "Political Declaration" provides for the establishment of the joint civilian-military transitional ruling body that would install an overall civilian administration. That governing body will include six civilians and five generals. It will then oversee the formation of a transitional civilian government and parliament to govern for 39 months, after which elections will be held.

Political uncertainty. Talks were to resume soon after the July 17 deal, but three [armed rebel] groups who are part of the protest movement had objected to that agreement. They argued that it did not address issues related to bringing peace to Sudan's wartorn regions of Darfur, Blue Nile and South Kordofan. Their concerns were addressed in separate talks in Addis Ababa last week between representatives of [the armed] rebel groups and protest leaders. The "Constitutional Declaration" is hoped to bring an end to the political uncertainity that has roiled Sudan since Bashir's ouster on April 11 2019. The crisis peaked following a deadly raid in June on crowds of protesters who had camped outside the military headquarters in Khartoum since April 6. Shortly before dawn on June 3 2019, gunmen in military fatigues raided the site of the weeks-long sit-in, shooting and beating protesters. Doctors linked to the protest movement say the raid left 127 people dead and scores wounded. But a joint investigation by prosecutors and the ruling military council that took power following Bashir's ouster found that just 17 people were killed on June 3, with a total of 87 dying between that day and June 10. The probe identified eight officers involved in the violent crackdown on the protes camp, including a general, a colonel and a captain from the feared paramilitary Rapid Support Forces [RSF].

Impartial probe. The eight officers face charges of crimes against humanity, chief investigator Fatah al-Rahman Saeed told reporters on Saturday 27.07.2019. But protest leaders have rejected the findings, saying the inquiry exonerated the military council [TMC] and gave a far lower death toll than their own figures. Saeed's investigation "was commissioned by the military council [TMC], this is challenging its integrity as the military council [TMC] itself is accused in this case," said the Sudanese Professionals Association, which spearheaded the initial protests against Bashir. Angry demonstrators have staged rallies against the probe, calling for an independent investigation into the raid. On Sunday 28.07.2019, scores of protesters chanting the months-long protest movement's catchcry of "Freedom, peace, justice!" rallied in Khartoum's eastern Burri district, witnesses said, adding that riot police swiftly dispersed the crowd with tear gas. The country's ruling generals [from TMC and RSF] have insisted they did not order the dispersal of the sit-in. Sources: AFP and France 24.

Complaints about rapidly rising prices, lack of medicines in Sudan. Many Sudanese are suffering from rising prices of food and medicines. A number of medicines have become hard to find or are not available at all. Listeners told Radio Dabanga from Halfa El Jadeeda in eastern Sudan's Kassala that the price for a kilogram of lamb meat jumped from DSDG 300 ($7*) to SDG 400 last week. The price for a kilogram of beef rose from SDG 180 to SDG 280. Adding a salad to the meal now costs SDG 100 ($2.20) instead of SDG 30. In El Geneina, capital of West Darfur, the price of a gallon of benzine rose to SDG 180 and a gallon of diesel SDG 150. Various people in the city lamented the high food costs. "We now pay SDG 2,200 ($49) for a 100kg sack of sorghum," one of them said. Shortages of medicines were reported in the five states of Darfur and in North and West Kordofan. Pharmacists confirmed that a variety of medicines are not on the markets anymore. They complained about a lack of life-saving medicines, medications for psychiatric and neurological patients, and fever drops for new-borns."Many people come to the pharmacy with prescriptions but return to the hospital or home empty-handed because the medicines are not available anymore or they cannot afford to pay for them," a pharmacist reported from El Fula in West Kordofan. Already in September 2018, Radio Dabanga reported that Sudanese in various parts of the country were having difficulty in coping with the continuously rising food and consumer goods prices. A number of families complained that the circumstances forced them to reduce their daily meals to just one. * As foreign exchange rates can vary in Sudan, Radio Dabanga bases all SDG currency conversions on the daily US dollar rate quoted by the Central Bank of Sudan (CBoS). Source: Radio Dabanga.

29.07.2019. The external interference negatively affects the negotiation process: Labbat. SPA calls for escalation against the military council. AU mediation: Sudan junta-opposition talks to continue this week. Five school children dead, 40-50 wounded, as RSF militiamen open fire in North Kordofan capital. The anarchists (AI/ACA) etc. call for protests as student deaths stir anger ahead of Sudan talks.

The external interference negatively affects the negotiation process: Labbat. African mediator Mohamed El-Hassan Ould Labbat, has acknowledged that there are internal and external interference in the Sudanese crisis. Labbat said “Monday” that these interventions affected the path of negotiation between the military junta and the forces of the Declaration of Freedom and Change, adding that what is happening in Sudan is a real example of a multidimensional crisis because of the large number of external and internal interventions, but despite these interventions, we as mediators and negotiating parties have been able to overcome all differences and obstacles Which faced the negotiating track. Mohamed El-Hassan praised the spirit of the Sudanese negotiator, pointing out that Sudanese people are very similar to the Mauritanian people in many customs and morals. Sources: Alintibaha and Sudan Daily.

SPA calls for escalation against the military council. Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA) said on Monday 29.07.2019 that they got fed up with negotiation with the military junta (TMC) and demanded the latter to accept the amended Constitutional Declaration unconditionally, hours after the fall of five protesters in El-Obeid, capital of North Kordofan state. The Association, which spearhead the Sudanese [embryo-]revolution since December, called on the masses in the capital and all states of Sudan to take to the streets in order to demand for civil authority and to prosecute those involved in the violence against the citizens. “The military junta [TMC] failed to protect citizens, the military junta confirms every day that it failed in the task it claimed, which is to protect the homeland and citizens”, SPA said in a statement. “The Association stressed the need to transfer power to civilians to conduct independent investigations into crimes against civilians”, according to the statement. A new round of negotiations between the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) and the military council (TMC) was scheduled to begin on Tuesday 30.07.2019 morning for consensus on the Constitutional Declaration. Source: Sudan Daily.

AU mediation: Sudan junta-opposition talks to continue this week. The African Union mediation announced that the meeting between Sudan’s ruling Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the opposition Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) on the text of the Constitutional Declaration has been adjourned, with the agreement of both parties. The technical committees of both parties are due to meet today (Monday 29.07.2019) to finalise preparations for direct negotiations to resume on Wednesday 31.07.2019. The junta [TMC] announced on Friday 26.07.2019 that the coming days will witness a dialogue on the Constitutional Declaration and negotiations between the FFC and the Sudan Revolutionary Front brokered by Ethiopia under auspices of the African Union. The FFC published a draft text of the Constitutional Document, which is to be negotiated with the Military Council (TMC). The draft contains the features of the transitional period, the powers and competences of the Sovereign Council and the Prime Minister. After both parties have reached agreement on the text, they will begin to form transitional government institutions. These institutions include the Sovereign Council and a Cabinet that will lead the country during the interim period stipulated in the Political Agreement signed on July 17 2019. Source: Radio Dabanga.

Five school children dead, 40-50 wounded, as RSF militiamen open fire in North Kordofan capital. At least five secondary school students have been killed and 40-50 more reported wounded after members of the Rapid Support Forces (RSF), Sudan's main government militia, opened fire on a spontaneous demonstration in the North Kordofan capital of El Obeid today 29.07.2019. The Sudan Doctors’ Central Committee said in a short statement later this morning that students Ahmed Abdelgadir, Hasan Saad, Mohamed El Fateh, and Badreldin Ismail, and a man named Ahmed Abdelkarim died. The doctors reported as well a large number of injuries, “some of which are critical”. Source: Radio Dabanga.

The anarchists (AI/ACA) etc. call for protests as student deaths stir anger ahead of Sudan talks. Sudan's main protest groups, FFC, SPA, the anarchists (AI/ACA) and more, on Monday 29.07.2019 called for nationwide rallies to condemn the killing of five protesters, including high school students, at a rally in a central town, a day before the resumption of talks on a power-sharing deal. At least four school children and one adult were shot dead when security forces broke up a student protest in the Sudanese city of El-Obeid on Monday 29.07.2019, campaigners said. Gunfire rang out as teenagers rallied against fuel and bread shortages in the capital of North Kordofan state, residents said, at a time of heightened tension between opposition campaigners and Sudan's military rulers, the TMC and RSF. The Forces of Freedom and Change coalition of opposition groups accused military and paramilitary forces of opening fire on the high school pupils and called for nationwide protests in response. "We call on our people to take to the streets... to denounce the El-Obeid massacre, to demand the perpetrators be brought to justice," said the Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA). Sources: France 24 and AIIS.

30.07.2019. Sudan military head: Killing of schoolkids unacceptable. Anarchists and many others protest, condemning the ‘El Obeid massacre’. FFC called off planned talks with the TMC. Government report: 184 killed since protests began in Sudan. TMC reforms NISS.

Sudan military head: Killing of schoolkids unacceptable. What happened in El-Obeid is a regrettable and upsetting matter, says al-Burhan. The head of Sudan’s ruling military council [TMC] said on Tuesday 30.07.2019 there must be immediate accountability over an incident in which at least four school children were shot dead on Monday 29.07.2019, according to state news agency SUNA. “What happened in El-Obeid is a regrettable and upsetting matter and the killing of peaceful citizens is unacceptable and rejected and a crime that requires immediate and deterrent accountability,” Abdel Fattah al-Burhan was quoted as saying. He stressed that every Sudanese killed is a great loss and a solution must be found, following the events of El-Obeid City on Monday. “Rapid Support Forces (RSF) are special forces and subject to the commander-in-chief of the army, and its established by law which is affiliated to the armed forces.” Sources: Sudan Daily and The Middle East Monitor (MEMO).

Anarchists and many others protest, condemning the ‘El Obeid massacre’. FFC called off planned talks with the TMC. The killing of five protesters, among them four school students, in El Obeid on Monday 29.07.2019 in the morning, sparked major demonstrations in various Sudanese cities and towns later that day and on Tuesday. As mentioned, members of the Rapid Support Forces, RSF, Sudan’s main government militia, reportedly began shooting at secondary school students and activists demonstrating in the North Kordofan capital on Monday morning. Five of them were killed instantly. Dozens of others were injured, eight of them seriously. The spokesman for the opposition Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) in El Obeid, lawyer Osman Saleh, told Radio Dabanga yesterday (29.07.2019) that the students went out in spontaneous protests on Sunday and Monday, ostensibly against the stoppage of public transport due to fuel shortages, drinking water outages, increasing commodity prices, and the unavailability of bread. The governor of North Kordofan imposed a curfew in El Obeid and three other large towns in the state. In Greater Khartoum, tens of thousands of people took to the streets on Monday afternoon and evening denouncing the “El Obeid massacre”. At various universities campuses in Khartoum state, El Soug El Arabi, El Ebeid Khatim Road, Burri El Dareisa, El Kalakla El Laffa, El Ribat El Watani, Siraj station, El Gomar, and other neighbourhoods staged protests, demanding justice, the immediate handing over of power to an interim civilian-led government, and removal of armed forces, especially the RSF, from all urban areas in the country. In Rabak and El Duweim in White Nile state, Port Sudan in Red Sea state, in Sennar, Kassala, and other state capitals across the country, people demonstrated as well a) against the killing of peaceful protesters, and b) the ruling junta, TMC, that took power from former President Omar Al Bashir in a military coup on April 11 2019.

As mentioned, Sudan's military ruler, the head of TMC, has condemned the killing of the schoolchildren at a rally, as FFC called off planned talks with the TMC and thousands of students took to the streets to denounce the latest bout of violence. The UN children's agency UNICEF in a statement on Tuesday 30.07.2019 called on Sudanese authorities "to investigate and hold all perpetrators of violence against children accountable". "No child should be buried in their school uniform," the agency said, adding the students killed were between 15 and 17 years old. The killings came ahead of planned talks between the ruling TMC and FFC on the remaining aspects of installing civilian rule, following the toppling of longtime ruler Omar al-Bashir in April 2019. The two sides signed a power-sharing agreement on July 17, and were to sit down on Tuesday 30.07.2019 to discuss the powers of the joint civilian-military ruling council, and immunity for generals over previous deadly violence against protesters. But negotiators for the Forces of Freedom and Change, FFC, the umbrella group that represents protest and opposition groups, told AFP news agency that Tuesday's talks would not take place because they were visiting El-Obeid. "There will be no negotiation today with the Transitional Military Council as our negotiating team is still in El-Obeid and will return only tonight," said Satea al-Haj.

Meanwhile, thousands of students - heeding calls for nationwide protests against the “El-Obeid massacre" by the anarchists (AI/ACA), FFC, SPA and others - rallied in Khartoum and other cities to condemn the violence against their fellow students. The SPA, which spearheaded the protests against al-Bashir, also called on all schools in North Kordofan state to suspend classes. Al Jazeera's Hiba Morgan, reporting from Addis Ababa in neighbouring Ethiopia, said there was a lot of anger and condemnation on the streets of the capital, Khartoum, because of the renewed violence in El-Obeid. "But [the protesters] are also condemning the silence of the opposition coalition Forces of Freedom and Change [FFC]. The protesters are saying these talks have not wielded any results and they've been going on for three months. People are saying that at the moment negotiations are not the way and that what the opposition should focus on is demanding justice and accountability. Earlier on Tuesday 30.07.2019, a prominent protest leader called for the talks to be suspended. "We cannot sit at the negotiating table with those allowing the killing of revolutionaries," Siddig Youssef said in a statement. Doctors linked to the protest movement say more than 250 people have been killed in protest-related violence since December, when demonstrations first erupted against al-Bashir. More than 100 were killed during and after an RSF raid on a sit-in outside the military headquarters on June 3 2019, they said. But a joint investigation by prosecutors and the ruling military council TMC concluded that just 17 people were killed on June 3, with a total of 87 deaths between that day and June 10. Protest leaders rejected the findings, saying the inquiry exonerated the military council and gave a far lower death toll than their own. The investigation "was commissioned by the military council [TMC]... [but] the military council [TMC] itself is accused in this case", SPA said. Sources: Radio Dabanga, Al Jazeera and AIIS.

Government report: 184 killed since protests began in Sudan. The total number of people killed since the protests broke out on December 19, 2018, and until early July amounted to 184, according to a report issued by the Sudanese Ministry of Health on Sunday 28.07.2019. Sudan endured upheaval since the army ousted President Omar Al-Bashir, whose rule lasted from 1989 to 2019, as a result of widespread protests and deteriorating economic conditions. The Undersecretary of the Federal Ministry of Health, Sulaiman Abdul-Jabbar, said that 154 people were killed in Khartoum, in addition to 30 others in several states, according to Sudan News Agency (SUNA). Four people were killed in West Darfur, three in North Darfur, six in the White Nile, seven in the Nile River, eight in Al-Qadarif, one in Kassala and one in the Red Sea. “This number (184 people) includes soldiers and civilians in addition to shot victims and others,” said Abdul-Jabbar. The forces of the Declaration of Freedom and Change [i.e. mainly FFC], the leading party of the popular movement, held the Transitional Military Council (TMC) responsible for the death of dozens of protesters, when security forces were dispersing sit-ins in front of the army headquarters in Khartoum on 3 June 2019. However, the Council [TMC] denied these accusations. The Sudanese official said: “some patients died due to the doctors’ strike, during the events taking place in the country, especially those having scheduled surgeries, in addition to the complications both diabetes and hypertension patients suffered from.”

On 19 July 2019, the Central Committee of Sudan Doctors (CCSD) (opposition) announced the end of a strike, which lasted for 207 days, in protest against [the] killing [of] protestors. At that time, the Committee reported that the number of dead protestors in Sudan, since last December, amounted to 246, and the registered number of the wounded reached 1,353. The Committee (CCSD) said that during the strike doctors “committed to taking care of critical cases admitted in accidents and emergency, intensive care and dialysis departments, cancer and newborns departments, and did not treat non-critical cases.” Source: The Middle East Monitor (MEMO).

Ruling military junta reforms (NISS). The ruling military junta [TMC] decided to reform the National Intelligence Security Services (NISS) and to change its name to the General Intelligence Service (GIS). Recently, several members of the ruling military council repeated they would reform the infamous NISS and limit its activities to the intelligence and counterintelligence activities only. According to (SUNA), the (TMC) announced that its chairman Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, issued the constitutional decree No. (33) to change the NISS name to GIS and amended several articles of the National Security Act of 2010. The move comes as there are calls by some opposition forces to disband the whole NISS and to create a new agency. But the TMC and several opposition groups rejected this proposition. GIS Director-General Lt-Gen Abu Bakr Demblab said that the reform comes in the context of the restructuring the agency and to keep up with the regime change in the country. The agency has become more professional and participates in the protection of the country and the maintenance of national security under complex threats surrounding the region and the region. Sources: Sudan Tribune and Sudan Daily.

31.07.2019. The Sudanese Spring - The history of the embryo-revolution in Sudan 19.12.2018 - 31.07.2019, and future development: Abortion or soon a real revolution? An Action-Report from The Anarchist Confederation of Africa - ACA - Sudanese Section! Action Day!

Action Day! First!: Read the all the reports on Sudan from 19.12.2018 - 31.07.2019, and learn from it, and get inspiration for further action! Second!: Take ACTION! DIRECT ACTIONS - MASS ACTIONS! Yesterday 30.09.2019 the anarchists (AI/ACA) had a direct action campaign titled: "ACA: Sudan update 30.07.2019. Read the latest resolutions, actions, news and comments by the anarchists (AI/ACA). Anarchists and many others protest, condemning the ‘El Obeid massacre’. FFC called off planned talks with the TMC." Now the anarchists (AI/ACA) again call for Social Justice, a great anarchist principle, including optimal order and law. Third!: Repeat the headlines of the reports on Sudan from 11.07.2019 - 31.07.2019; see beneath, for inspiration to coming direct actions:

11.07.2019. The embryo-revolution in Sudan - History and the latest developments - Anarchist point of view. 12.07.2019. TMC, Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC), agree on the Political Declaration. 13.07.2019. The mass protest on July 13 2019. Demonstrators in Sudan demand justice for army crackdown victims. Thousands of protesters rallied across the country to mourn dozens of demonstrators killed in a brutal raid last month. 14.07.2019. Direct action on July 14 2019. 15.07.2019. The embryo-revolution in Sudan - History, recent and future development - The RSF is criminal and kills - Send Hemedti, the ruler of RSF, to prison for life - after a fair trial! 16.07.2019.The anarchists call on the people of Sudan to join the "March of Millions..." on Thursday 18.07.2019. FFC and TMC sit again at the negotiation table. Sudan's opposition rejects judicial immunity for military rulers. RSF killing fuels public anger in Sennar, across Sudan. 11 dead this week in Darfur violence. 1 tortured to death by RSF. 17.07.2019. Sudan. The anarchists (AI/ACA) declare: "No struggle can be successful if it is an unconscious one, and if it does not render itself a clear and concise account of its aim and the knowledge, strategy and tactics of the road ahead to achieve this aim! It is study time of optimal revolutionary activity for the pro-democracy movement in Sudan!" BBC reports: Sudan military and civilians sign deal to end deadly turmoil. The military has been pushing for immunity from prosecution after the protester deaths, but this is absent from the signed deal. It does, however, promise an investigation into the violence. 18.07.2019. Sudan. Anarchists against counter-revolutionary activity by the military and marxists etc. within FFC and SPA. Troika statement on the deal. Hemedti and the fate of Sudan. The "March of Millions". Some rebels reject the deal. 19.07.2019. Sudan. Friday's negotiation-meeting between TMC and FFC about the Constitutional Declaration is postponed. Sudanese Journalists Network criticizes junta-opposition deal. 246 protesters killed since December 2018. 20.07.2019. What Sudan’s embryo-revolution revealed about traditions. Bilateral consultations between FFC and the SRF begin in Addis Ababa. NCF: Political accord gives all power to junta. Soaring transport prices, bread shortages. And more... 21.07.2019. African mediator calls on Sudan’s opposition groups to reach compromise on peace. The talks on the Constitutional Declaration (CD) are expected to resume in Khartoum on Tuesday 23.07.2019 or Thursday 25.07.2019. 22.07.2019. The political agreement did not incorporate the armed [rebel] movements’ vision. Sharp differences between SRF and FFC. Soldier tortured to death. Six villagers – including children – killed by RSF. Protestors arrested in South Darfur. 23.07.2019. Hundreds of Sudan students rally for killed protesters. Two opposition parties reject calls for quotas to Sudan’s armed [rebel] groups. Sudan protesters group says Addis Ababa meetings discuss peace not jobs. 24.07.2019. The signing of the Constitutional Declaration would perhaps be on Sunday 28.07.2019. Armed Forces announces aborting of coup attempt. 25.07.2019. Sudan security forces continue to crackdown on media, politicians. 26.07.2019. Sudanese Islamic Movement rejects accusation it participated in coup attempt. Forces of Freedom and Change marches throughout Sudan. Sudan opposition, armed movements reach agreement in Addis Ababa. 27.07.2019. Khatib al-Ansar accuses “communist party” of conspiring against democracy. Sudan says 87 killed when security forces broke up protest site. Sudan opposition rejects report on protesters' killing. 28.07.2019. Sudan protesters reject prosecutor's report into June sit-in raid. Sudan: Military, armed [rebel] groups agree to free detainees. Sudan extends ceasefire with southern rebels. Sudan's pro-democracy movement concludes Constitutional Declaration draft. Sudan talks on remaining power transfer issues resume Tuesday 30.07.2019. Complaints about rapidly rising prices, lack of medicines in Sudan. 29.07.2019. The external interference negatively affects the negotiation process: Labbat. SPA calls for escalation against the military council. AU mediation: Sudan junta-opposition talks to continue this week. Five school children dead, 40-50 wounded, as RSF militiamen open fire in North Kordofan capital. The anarchists (AI/ACA) etc. call for protests as student deaths stir anger ahead of Sudan talks. 30.07.2019. Sudan military head: Killing of schoolkids unacceptable. Anarchists and many others protest, condemning the ‘El Obeid massacre’. FFC called off planned talks with the TMC. Government report: 184 killed since protests began in Sudan. TMC reforms NISS. 31.07.2019. The Sudanese Spring - The history of the embryo-revolution in Sudan 19.12.2018 - 31.07.2019, and future development: Abortion or soon a real revolution? An Action-Report from The Anarchist Confederation of Africa - ACA - Sudanese Section! Action Day! Source: AIIS.

PS. Talks with the TMC on the Constitutional Declaration for the transitional period, are expected to resume on Thursday 01.08.2019 after the return of the negotiating delegation of the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) from El-Obeid, where five protesters probably were killed by the RSF security forces Monday 29.07.2019, dubbed the ‘El Obeid massacre’. Meanwhile a government commission is established to investigate the ‘El Obeid massacre’; the anarchists (AI/ACA) declare: "This government can't be trusted, we demand an international, independent commission to investigate the ‘El Obeid massacre', as well as other ochlarchy, i.e. mob rule broadly defined, - in Sudan (probably mainly done by the RSF). Ad the Action Day called by AI/ACA-Sudanese Section: Large student demonstrations continued for the second day 31.07.2019 all over Sudan, condemning and denouncing a) the killing of [about] five school children, and b) wounding of dozens of others, by c) the RSF militiamen [i.e. probably the killers!]. Source: AIIS. 01.08.2019. Ad the Pro-Democracy Movement and revolt in Sudan – Necessary with expulsion of ochlarchists, including marxists/communists of SCP a.k.a. CPS, from FFC and SPA. The communist infiltrator "Anarchist Zero" is now expulsed from AI/ACA-Sudanese Section.

"Anarchist Zero" is an ochlarchist-marxist & communist infiltrator falsely posing as an “anarchist”.

The Sudanese Communist Party (SCP) a.k.a. Communist Party of Sudan (CPS), is a small, rather old style (state-)communist marxist-leninist party. The CPS is one of the oldest parties in Sudan, and was formally founded in 1946, ten years before Sudan's independence. In 1969 the CPS supported the coup d'état by leftist army officers led by Colonel Jafaar Nimeri. In the parliamentary elections of 1986 it won three seats. The opportunistic CPS has infiltrated the FFC/SPA with authoritarian marxist, state-socialist ideology, is democratic in the name only, and is thus counter-revolutionary and should be expulsed. The ultra-authoritarian members of the CPS must not sit in the Sovereign Council.

To “Anarchist Zero” [Earlier Network-member of AI/ACA - The Anarchist Confederation of Africa – Sudanese Section, now expulsed from the anarchist movement in general!]

“Anarchist Zero” wrote: “I support active resistance in all forms against the Foes of Anarchists; Assassinations, espionage, propaganda and sabotage are on the proverbial board for self-preservation! Bottlenecking foes - throwing everything We have at them at once, like the blitzkreig method, can work! [And] Arson.”

NB! Looks like much of what “Anarchist Zero” support is ochlarchy, i.e. mob rule broadly defined, and the anarchists [i.e. the anarchist movement (AI/IFA)], are clearly against ochlarchy in the class struggle and in self defense. We, the anarchists in general, are not pacifists, but we are also 100% not ochlarchists, including terrorists.

Remember 1.! Ochlarchists falsely posing as “anarchists”, will a.o.t. be expulsed from the anarchist movement by the International Anarchist Tribunal, and/or via decisions of the International Anarchist Congresses arranged by The Anarchist International. NB! You, “Anarchist Zero” is now expulsed from AI/ACA-Sudanese Section, by the IAT, because looking at your proposals mentioned above, you clearly is an ochlarchist-marxist & communist infiltrator, falsely posing as “anarchist”. [NB! The IAT has handed out an expulsing Brown Card to “Anarchist Zero”, for breaking of the Oslo-Convention.] It is a fact that socialists (anti-capitalists) are divided in two camps, marxists and anarchists. It is also a fact that all authoritarian socialists are marxists, not anarchists. It is a fact that ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined) is authoritarian. Thus it is a fact that anti-capitalist (socialist) ochlarchists are marxists, not anarchists, regardless of what they may call themselves or flag. The media and other persons should always report the facts in such cases, not falsely calling anti-capitalist ochlarchists anarchists. Authoritarian marxists a.k.a. communists, often infiltrate the anarchist movement and make ochlarchy, for (falsely) putting the blame for the ochlarchy on anarchists, to discredit the anarchist movement, here AI/ACA-Sudanese Section, as much as possible.

Remember 2.! Authoritarians notoriously mix up anarchy, anarchist and anarchism with authoritarian tendencies: Chaos, disorder, mob rule (narrowly defined), lawlessness, the law of the jungle, criminality, riots, theft, corruption, drugs, mafia, terrorism, autocratic rule, the right to the strongest, antisocial tyrannical behavior, etc. [including in general arson, assassinations, bottlenecking, the blitzkreig method, propaganda (i.e. lies – fake news), active resistance in all forms [including authoritarian], and similar, i.e. different types of superiors and subordinates, all in all ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined). The word anarchy origins from Greek. The prefix "an" means "negation of" as in anaerobe versus aerobe and "arch" means "superior, i.e. in contrast to subordinates", as in archbishop, archangel, archduke, arch villain, etc. NB! Any villain, ochlarch/ist, is an arch (boss) vis-a-vis the victims. Thus anarchy, anarchism, anarchist, a.s.o., mean coordination on equal footing, without superiors and subordinates, i.e. horizontal organization and co-operation without coercion - practically (significant, > 50% anarchy degree) or ideally (towards 100% anarchy degree). This is a bottom - up approach, significant influence from the grassroots towards the top, the opposite of the above mentioned authoritarian tendencies, i.e. different types of superiors and subordinates - in general ochlarchy. Ochlarchy is typical with more than 67% authoritarian degree. Anarchy has equal to or more than 50% anarchy degree. The anarchy degree is 100% - the authoritarian degree.

Remember 3.! The anarchists’ main strategy and tactics, direct action, may be non-violent or violent, but anarchists only accept defensive violence, proportionate in self defense. Other violent actions are ochlarchy and ochlarchist, and not anarchistic. See also "Antimilitarism - an anarchist approach", IJA 2 (38) , for direct action in self-defense matters. Terrorism is never a direct action, it is clearly a top - down approach. But sabotage and even killing in pure self defense of aggressive, attacking murderer(s), alone or with allies - if there is no other option - are direct action, a significant bottom - up approach. Terrorism is a form of ochlarchy, and as indicated very much a top - down approach, it is ultra-authoritarian and extremist, and not anarchist. Violence is an evil that should be used as little as possible. Political or industrial (direct) actions are intended to have an immediate and noticeable effect that will influence a political administration or an employer. Anarchists' political/administrative and economic direct actions are actions for changing the societal organization in horizontal direction, and thus not violent attacks on persons and things, which are a top - down approach - economically and /or political/administrative [except in self-defense matters, see above]. There must be consistency between aims and means. The real aim is in general the consequences of the use of the means involved, not some ideological manifesto with good intentions, if any. Attacking persons and things will in general not change the societal organization in horizontal direction. In general, even if you kill the top boss, he or she will always be replaced by a new one on the top, perhaps even more authoritarian, and there is no shift of the societal organization in horizontal direction. Thus it is not anarchistic.

Remember 4.! *****) The AISC. This Website ( http://www.anarchy.no/ai.html) is also the official webpage of the Anarchist International Security Council (AISC). This council was established as an informal network in 1978 by the Anarchist Federation of Norway (AFIN) related to ochlarchist repression by the use of force from communists of AKP (ml), now Rødt, at May Day demonstrations. The council was expanded in 1979 when anarchists were violently attacked by rightwing extremists. The security network was confirmed on several international anarchist congresses later on, related to IFA. The AISC was officially confirmed as a world wide libertarian security network connected to the Anarchist International, at the 5th Anarchist Biennial, arranged by the NAC/IFA/AI in Oslo medio December 1998.

The structure of AISC is decentralized with no central command and no central committee. Most of the networkmembers of the Anarchist International - AI/IFA and its sections are de facto acting generals ... all on equal footing - none above -- significant; and also networkmembers of the vast Anarchist International Security Council - AISC, i.e. world wide. The term acting generals indicates functions as general as well as ensign and rank and file soldier, self-managed on collective and individual basis. Acting generals of AISC are entitled to the use of 1 black & red star as rank symbol in duty, the sign of an ensign, and also called "one star general". Legitimate use of this star is always confirmed by the Anarchist International. The AISC takes care of all kinds of security functions, and may be a bit shadowy in some of them. One function is to act as revolutionary pilots, as mentioned by M. Bakunin, mainly related to velvet revolutions and revolutionary changes. AISC has freedom within a framework decided by the International Anarchist Congresses, the Anarchist Biennials of AI/IFA.

The strategy and tactics of AISC are based on the following facts: Anarchists in general are not pacifists. Anarchists are never terrorists. No real anarchist has been a terrorist historically. The strategy, tactics and practice of AISC are libertarian including mutual aid, compatible with real democracy and based on direct actions, i.e. without ochlarchy (i.e. mob rule broadly defined - terrorism is a form of ochlarchy). Thus, although AISC usually is involved in non-violent resistance, it may be violent, but only in legitimate and proportionate self-defense. The AISC is involved in the anarchists' general fight against ochlarchy, and contributes to guards at demonstrations, etc. In the rare case an AISC-networkmember, claiming to be libertarian/anarchist, is acting as an ochlarchist/ochlarch or in other ways is acting authoritarian, the networkmember will get a Brown Card from IAT-APT according to the Oslo Convention, and thus be expulsed from the anarchist/libertarian movement, etc.

AISC is no vigilantes/borgervern, paramilitary organization, armed militia, military organization, uniformed organization, secret agents, a conspiracy or organized crime, or a so called black bloc/block (i.e. fascistoid and/or commie-fascistoid, violent non-libertarian and ochlarchist paramilitary & militarist hierarchies). AISC is a 100% legitimate self-defense network, as mentioned based on mutual aid, and it is an antimilitarist organization and thus of course not militarist and not for militarism. But also of course many networkmembers of the AISC have legitimate weapons for hunting, sports and self-defense, on individual basis, as well as significant training in self-defense and martial arts broadly defined. Most networkmembers of the AISC have also significant education and training from regular armed forces in their home countries at different rank levels, some also as lieutenant commander, colonel or even higher rank. However in AISC all have only one black & red star, are "one star generals", also called "ensign-generals". The AISC has also similar functions as the United Nations' Security Council (UNSC) for the anarchist movement and the libertarian world, 'le monde libertaire', and also somewhat related to the world in general. The AISC also contributes to prepare cases for the International Anarchist Tribunal, IAT-APT.

The AISC is also a junction between the libertarian movement and regular antimilitarist corps (or similar regular corps) of different countries and their defense organizations. AISC also gives advice in security matters on local and national level, as well as to the international community, at relevant time, place and events. The AISC is inspired by a.o.t. the works of Sun Tzu interpreted in a libertarian way, i.e. , say, the term "sovereign" is interpreted as the people, seen as a class as opposed to superiors, and not a ruler/rulers [x-arch(s), where x can be anything but not 'an'], etc. Remember also at the historic time of Sun Tzu there were no airforce, cruise missiles, nuclear bombs and similar. AISC is also inspired by George Orwell's "Homage to Catalonia". See Antimilitarism - an anarchist approach - IJA 2 (38), The International Conference on Terrorism - IJA 4 (31) & Socal justice and security and www.anarchy.no in general, for more information about the organization and self-management, as well as strategy & tactics and practice, of AISC.

http://www.anarchy.no/aisclogo.jpg AISC-LOGO

Interpretation of the logo: An anarchist @-sign (= Anarchist & A) with the flash to the right meaning I (= International), the flash to the left meaning S (= Security) and the C in black at the circle (= Council) , thus AISC - the Anarchist International Security Council.

@-greetings AISC and AI/ACA-Sudanese Section.

_____

Original e-mail from "Anarchist Zero":

From: Anarchist Zero [Earlier Network-member of AI/ACA - The Anarchist Confederation of Africa – Sudanese Section, now expulsed!] Sent: Thursday, August 01, 2019 1:18 AM To: The Anarchist International Subject: Re: The Sudanese Spring - The history of the embryo-revolution in Sudan 19.12.2018 - 31.07.2019, and future development: Abortion or soon a real revolution? An Action-Report from The Anarchist Confederation of Africa - ACA - Sudanese Section! Action Day!

I support active resistance in all forms against the Foes of Anarchists; We Anarchists need to take advantage of the Deep Web to strengthen our ties Globally (as well as recruit: Anarchism sells itself -- infoshop dot org & reddit dot com/r/Anarchism/ & AKPress dot org). Assassinations, espionage, propaganda and sabotage are on the proverbial board for self-preservation! Bottlenecking foes - throwing everything We have at them at once, like the blitzkreig method, can work! (along with the Everyperson's WMD: Arson).

_____

PS. Chairman of the Political Committee of the Transitional Military Council (TMC), Gen. Shams-Eddin Kabbashi, announced that the negotiations between the Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) will be resumed today, i.e. Thursday 01.08.2019, in Corinthia Hotel to discuss the Constitutional Document. Four more Sudanese protesters were killed on Thursday 01.08.2019 during protests in Omdurman, with many more injured; shot by live bullets according to medics working on the scene. The paramilitary state-terrorists of RSF, ruled by Hemedti, are probably behind the attack and killings. Sources: Reuters and AIIS 01.08.2019.

_____

02.08.2019. Sudan: after heroic popular uprising by anarchists and many others, the military (TMC/RSF) still keeps most of the power. By the International Institute for Organization Research (IIFOR).

Mass demonstrations continue: Negotiations - still going on - come on the heels of massive protests. Tens of thousands of demonstrators flooded the streets of Sudan's main cities on Sunday 30.06.2019. The mass actions continue. It would be hard to overstate the bravery of the Sudanese people — youth, women, professionals, unionists, anarchists, leftists, small farmers, industrial workers, produce sellers in the open-air markets, a.s.o. — who won the overthrow of the about 30-year dictator Omar Hassan al-Bashir. But it would also be hard to overstate the dangers threatening their goal of real, lasting change in democratic direction — because the blood-soaked military that backed Bashir’s brutal regime until 11.04.2019, including the paramilitary Rapid Support Forces (RSF), and now headed by the Transitional Military Council (TMC) - is still mainly in charge.

Calls for freedom, peace and justice! The mass protests began in December 2018 in the union town of Atbara, about 287 km = 178 miles, from Khartoum - the capital city. A drastic spike in the price of bread was the immediate spark, but economic conditions in general had become intolerable for workers and the poor, thanks in large part to austerity measures imposed by the International Monetary Fund. A United Nations program estimates that half of Sudan’s population lives below the poverty line. The rebellion is political as well as economic. Soon the people, in the meaning of the grassroots, called for Bashir’s ouster and civilian rule. A common chant, rhyming in Arabic, reflects this: “Freedom, peace, and justice! Revolution is the choice of the people!” An important force behind the revolt is the Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA), a union umbrella group of doctors, journalists, lawyers, teachers, engineers, pharmacists and artists, joined more recently by factory and railroad workers. The SPA is also central to a broad opposition alliance called the Forces for the Declaration of Freedom and Change (FDFC), later changed to the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC), which also includes several opposition political parties, but not the anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section). Among other groups in the FDFC, are the youth-led Girifna Movement and two feminist organizations: the No to Women’s Oppression Initiative and the Women of Sudanese Civic and Political Groups. The FDFC coalition demands that 40 percent of legislative seats be reserved for women and calls for an end to all forms of sexist oppression. Women’s issues and activism are so key to the uprising that it is popularly called “a women’s revolution.” Their militant activism, like that of many other groups who are rebelling, extends back through the decades of Bashir’s rule. And this is despite legal hindrances under Sharia law and fierce repression, including rape and torture by the military including RSF headed by Hemedti, and now the TMC in general.

Downfall of a dictator. The defiance that started in December 2018 was swiftly met with ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined) included violence and arrests, by the State. But the people would not be denied. They continued to mobilize even after Bashir declared a state of emergency on February 22 2019, dissolving the government and replacing state governors with military and national security personnel. On April 6, the anniversary of the overthrow of an earlier dictator, tens of thousands of people protested near the army headquarters in Khartoum. Agents with the feared National Intelligence and Security Services (NISS) attempted to disperse people with tear gas, but failed, as new waves of protesters overwhelmed the site. Urged by activists from the Pro-Democracy Movement, i.e. mainly the Sudanese Professionals Association (SPA), but also anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section), the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) and other activists - to stay the course, the huge crowd did just that, and the rally became a days-long sit-in, organized in shifts. They persevered even though the security forces killed dozens of people. At that point, military leaders decided that to save the regime, they needed to chop off its head and symbol, Bashir. The military deposed him on April 11 2019 and put themselves in charge, establishing the Transitional Military Council (TMC) and saying it would be for a two-year transitional period.

The Sudanese military - a totalitarian, ultra-authoritarian, ochlarchist power. In recent years, the Sudanese military has left a trail of bodies and blood from Darfur in the west of the country to outside its borders, in Yemen and elsewhere. With only brief interruptions of civilian rule, it has been in power in Sudan for 50 years, the partner to one autocratic dictator after another. Its deadliest wing is the Rapid Support Forces (RSF), essentially a new name for the infamous Janjaweed militias. It is responsible for genocide in Darfur and for crushing insurgencies in other parts of Sudan. It is commanded by a butcher named Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, also known as Hemedti or Hemeti. A prime demand of the rebellion in Sudan, all along, was an end to military rule. So, after Bashir was booted, protests continued, demanding that the Transitional Military Council (TMC) give way to a civilian central administration. General Hemedti, although officially the TMC's number two man, is believed to be calling the shots. On June 3 2019, mainly the RSF attacked a protest camp in Khartoum. During the raid and a two-week crackdown that followed, they massacred at least 128 people, dumping several bodies into the Nile. The violence included rapes of 70 people or many more. After the main assault on June 3 2019 , the ruling military council (TMC) shut down Sudan’s internet for a month. Despite this, news about the horrifying events spread around the world.

A deal with the devil. In July 2019, Ethiopia and the African Union stepped in to sponsor negotiations between the opposition FFC and the military TMC. The two sides announced the brief outlines of a power-sharing agreement on July 5 2019. The deal would create a joint Sovereign Council (SC) for a transitional period of a little more than three years, designed to lead to elections, with a military leader heading the SC for the first 21 months. After all the deaths and suffering, many Sudanese saw this as the beginning of the end of the turmoil, and celebrated in the streets. But many others, including the anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section), were wary of where this pact would lead — especially after seeing the military hijack the embryo-revolution in Egypt, first in 2011 and then finally in a coup d'état in 2013, aborting the embryo-revolution before it became a real revolution. They are right to be wary. Some rank-and-file soldiers and junior officers have supported the protesters, but the heads of Sudan’s military including the TMC and RSF, have no interest in a peaceful, democratic Sudan, not to mention real democracy, i.e.anarchy, in the country. They are not to be trusted for a minute, let alone 21 months. And perhaps the negotiators on the side of the rebellion, FFC, are having a few second thoughts also; as of this writing in early August 2019, they have postponed signing a detailed agreement, included a Constitutional Declaration and more, several times… the devil is in the details! The anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section) continue the fight for a best possible deal between FFC and TMC, i.e. best for the people, seen as a class as opposed to the superiors in income and/or rank, economically and/or political/administrative, i.e. the grassroots.

International solidarity. The Sudanese fighters for freedom, the anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section) and many others in the Pro-Democracy Movement, have sacrificed a tremendous amount to get this far. But to stop protesting, with the military mainly in charge, deal or no deal, would mark the end of the road — at least for now. To continue on, the anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section) and the Pro-Democracy Movement in Sudan in general, need all the international support the world’s grassroots-organizations, including the Anarchist International (AI/IFA), and workers, feminists, and radicals in general - can give them. Sources: IIFOR and AIIS.

02.08.2019. Open letter on the CD, to the FFC and TMC, with preliminary demands regarding the Constitutional Declaration (CD); from the Spearhead of the Pro-Democracy Movement - the Anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section).

Open Letter on the CD, to the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) and the Transitional Military Council (TMC), with preliminary demands regarding the Constitutional Declaration (CD); from the Spearhead of the Pro-Democracy Movement - the Anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section).

To FFC c/o SPA e-mail: MediaRequests@sudaneseprofessionals.org ; Info@sudaneseprofessionals.org ; and TMC c/o e-mail: info@sudan.gov.sd via oslo@mofa.gov.sd.

Introduction.

The Anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section) continue the fight for a best possible deal between FFC and TMC, i.e. best for the people, seen as a class as opposed to the superiors in income and/or rank, economically and/or political/administrative, i.e. the grassroots. This “Open Letter on the CD” e-mail campaign direct action, is a part of this struggle. In this campaign and struggle we have full support from the global anarchist movement, i.e. The Anarchist International (AI/IFA) and all its sections, and many of our demands are internationally analyzed, decided and supported. The anarchist-movement is international.

The main Anarchist positions. The Anarchists' (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section) position in the pro-democracy revolutionary movement in Sudan and more.

The anarchists, The International Workers of the World (IWW), the AI/IFA, the AISC and The Anarchist Confederation of Africa (ACA) in general, and its Sudanese Section, condemn 1. the totalitarian, ultra-authoritarian Transitional Military Council (TMC), and especially the deputy head of TMC, gen. Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo a.k.a. Hemedti, and his notorious Rapid Support Forces (RSF) paramilitary unit, and 2. the killing of several dozens of protesters; beating, torture and rape of many and attacks on hospitals - mainly by RSF, and demand 3. a full and fair investigation into the recent violence as well as social justice in the matter - taking into account a) the RSF is criminal and kills, and b) send Hemedti, the ruler and responsible of RSF, to prison for life - after a fair trial.

International investigations and trial, and no immunity.

Ad point 3. above. The mentioned full and fair investigation, must be done by a 100% Independent and a 100% International Commission (IIC), not a domestic or government run commission. The trials should be at a 100% International, and a 100% Independent Tribunal (IIT). There should be no immunity for the government at all, including no immunity for members of TMC and RSF. No-one should be above the law and optimal order.

The people’s class-struggle - without ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined).

Furthermore 4. the anarchists a) are a part of the pro-democracy movement, b) mainly support the Forces of Freedom and Change (FFC) and mean c) the pro-democracy movement, i.e. mainly the anarchists, the FFC and a sufficient majority of the people together (the 'people' here defined as the grassroots, i.e. seen as a class in contrast to the superiors in rank and/or income) - during the transition period (02.08.2019 planned to be 3 years + 3 months) probably can change the embryo-revolution in Sudan to a real revolution, and d) achieve some form of democracy via good economic-political work and a struggle without ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined - the opposite of anarchy, which includes optimal order and law), and e) perhaps later on and in the long run even achieve real democracy, i.e. anarchy; and also mean f) the power-sharing agreement between TMC and FFC (when all details are agreed upon) is probably a welcome and small first step in the direction of democracy and away from totalitarian, ultra-authoritarian rule in Sudan, and g) also mean the pro-democracy movement can avoid an abortion of the embryo-revolution by stopping possible counter-revolutionary attacks from TMC, RSF and Hemedti or other reactionary domestic forces (including ochlarchist authoritarian marxist a.k.a. communist infiltrators within in the SPA and FFC; they should all be expulsed) or foreign enemies of the revolution, mainly Saudi-Arabia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Egypt.

Democracy.

Ad point d) and f) above; the Anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section) mean: The New Democracy in Sudan must be based on Federalism and Direct Democracy as in the Swiss Confederation! No to Presidential and ordinary Parliamentary Democracy! See the IIFOR-report "Federalism and Direct Democracy - the Swiss Confederation". (Click on: http://www.anarchy.no/swiss1.html). This should be implemented as soon as possible. See also IIFOR's and AI's report "REAL DEMOCRACY DEFINED! Real democracy – definition!" (Click on: http://www.anarchy.no/realdemocracy.html); for a more long term perspective (point e).

Armed forces, police and more.

The Anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section) mean: i) dismantling of the old regime, ii) accountability of its corrupt figures and the recovery of the looted property including property of the people, iii) dissolution and banning of all militias and paramilitary groups, including RSF, iv) use of armed forces only for national defense purposes, normally forbidden to use the military against civilians, and v) there must be sufficient non-ochlarchical police and independent courts to keep up law and optimal order. This, point i)-v), should be implemented as soon as possible.

No repression in Sudan in general, especially no repression against the Pro-Democracy Movement, including the Anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section), - and more.

The Anarchist Confederation of Africa (ACA) and its Sudanese Section, declare: Fellows in Africa - and especially Sudan! Contact ACA and join the ACA-network today! Be a networkmember/subscriber to the IJ@/ACA/ AI/IFA! Click here to subscribe! It is free! Feel free to forward this information to your own network, and/or link up the Website of ACA at your blog or homepage. Join in the struggle for and towards anarchy and anarchism, i.e. for socialism and autonomy; against economical plutarchy - that is capitalism; and against statism -- in the African countries, including Sudan - and world wide... Of course a struggle without ochlarchy (mob rule broadly defined), the opposite of anarchist, anarchy and anarchism!!! A struggle for anarchy and anarchism as opposed to all forms of marxism (state-socialism), liberalism and fascism, including populism. A struggle for a movement of the societal, i.e. economical and political/administrative, systems -- in libertarian direction, less authoritarian degree... ACA, including its Sudanese Section, always works and demonstrates with dignity, uses real matter of fact arguments and adds weight behind via direct actions, mass actions, and via elections. More information? Contact ACA - Click here!

Best regards!

The Anarchists (AI/ACA-Sudanese Section).

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From IJA 1(41) http://www.anarchy.no/ija141.html. This file will be updated. Follow the news and comments.

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Comments

Why even print this nonsense? Sheesh

Maybe because they're taking a few more risks than you sweetheart?

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